Modern History Preliminary Yearly Exam
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Which year did Australia give women voting rights?
Which year did Russia give women voting rights?
Which year did NZ give women voting rights?
In what years did Britain give voting rights to women?
1918 (for 30+) 1929 (21+)
In what years did Scandinavian countries (except Sweden) give voting rights to women?
Before or during WWI
In what years did Sweden, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Czechoslovakia give voting rights to women?
What was the Dreyfus case and when did it occur?
15 October October, Alfred Dreyfus was wrongly accused of treason; supposedly having access to confidential military documents that he had passed onto France's enemy, Germany.
What was the outcome of the Dreyfus case?
- After a secret Martial, Dreyfus was found "guilty" and sent sentenced to life imprisonment in Devils Island.
- Over time, many believed was innocent: They believed that the Catholic Church was at fault as well as right wing politicians and militarists.
- Dreyfus was found guilty again in a new trial in 1899 despite the real traitor being known.
- Later that year, Dreyfus was given a pardon by the French President.
Why was the Dreyfus case considered a great miscarriage of justice?
- Many believed Dreyfus was innocent:
- As he was Jewish he was an easy target in the anti Semitic culture and therefore he was wrongly accused.
- It is believed that France's right-wing politicians, militarists and leaders of the Catholic Church were at fault.
- They were willing to sacrifice Dreyfus rather than sacrifice the reputation of the French military. Dreyfusards - left wing politicians (socialists), intellectuals.
When was the Russo Japanese war?
Why is the Russo war significant?
It was the first time an Asian country defeated a European power, after Japan's rapid industrial, technological and military modernization and growth. This thwarted the long held belief and illusion of white superiority and invincibility.
Russo war - what was it fought over?
Russia and Japan fought the Russo-Japanese war as they wished to expand their empires within Asia (Laidong peninsula and parts of China [Manchuria])
When was the siege of port Arthur? And briefly what happened?
August 1904. Japan encircled and laid seige to port Arthur, the Russian Fleet was unable to pass the Japanese.
When and why did Japan declare war on Russia?
After failed negotiations regarding Russian autonomy in Manchuria, Japan declared war on 8th February 1904. They torpedoed the Russian fleet at port Arthur. EDIT
What happened in the siege of Port Arthur?
- More than 100 000 soldiers surrounded the port city digging kilometers of trenches and attacking the city's fortifications with gunfire, artillery, mortars, mines, tunnels.
- Japanese warships prevented Russian ships from leaving the harbour and prevented any chance of port Arthur being relieved or re-supplied by ship. The siege lasted for 5 months with the Japanese being successful in taking over port Arthur.
When was the Boxer Rebellion?
What kind of people were part of the Boxer Rebellion? And why?
Poor Chinese who blamed Westerners and their imperialism for their poor standards of living.
When was the Boxer Rebellion first organised?
What happened under the 1904 terms of Entente Cordiale and what similar promises were made? How did Kaiser Wilhelm view this?
France agreed to allow Britain to extend its influence into Egypt. Britain made similar promises regarding France and Morocco. Kaiser Wilhelm viewed the agreement as an alliance against Germany and was determined to undermine it.
What did Kaiser do in 1905? And why?
He went to Tangier, Morocco and gave a speech saying it should be free of French influence. He hoped to show that France could not rely on Britain's support (the Entente Cordiale).
What conference was convened to solve the crisis? And what did it do?
The 1906 Algeciras Conference, which did the opposite of solving the crisis. EDIT
Who did Britain support in the Moroccan Crises?
Britain supported France and so did Germany's supposed 'ally', Italy.
What did the Morocco Crisis prove?
It proved the Entente Cordiale to be stronger than it seemed and encouraged Britain to settle its differences with its old enemy, Russia.
Which alliance was formed in 1907? Why was this significant?
Britain settled its colonial and other differences with Russia, signing the Anglo-Russian Entente.
Triple Entente was made up of?
Britain, Russia and France.
Triple Alliance was made up of?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy.
Kaiser intervened again in France's relationship with Morocco in what year?
What did France do in Fez (Moroccan Capital)?
They sent troops in to help put down a rebellion against the Sultan of Morocco.
What did Kaiser do in response to the French sending troops into Fex, Morocco?
He sent out gunboat Panther to Agadir on the Moroccan coast. He demanded that France give Germany its French congo territory in return for Germany allowing France to take over Morocco.
What did Britain fear about this new Moroccan crisis?
They feared it demonstrated Germany's desire to threaten British naval power and that it was another attempt to undermine the Entente Cordiale.
What did Britain do in response to Germany's actions in Morocco in 1911?
Britain threatened to send in its navy.
After Britain's response to the Germany's naval threat, what happened to Germany?
Germany had to be content with a smaller area of the Congo than it had wanted.
Following the Moroccan crises events, what happened?
The Anglo-French Entente became virtually a military alliance and both Britian and Germany increased their naval expenditure.
When did the Entente Cordiale form?
When did France and Russia form alliance?
When did Britain and Russia form alliance?
when did Austria-Hungary form an alliance with Germany?
When did Germany form an alliance with Italy?
When did Italy form an alliance with Austria-hungary?
What was Kaiser Whilhelm II's ambitions?
- He wanted to make Germany not only a European power but a world power "weltpolitik"
- He believed that Germany should become an overseas Empire.
What was the Kaiser's plans?
He planned to build the Berlin to Baghdad railway to extend German economic and political inerests in the near East.
What was Kaiser Whilhelm II's ambitions?
- Wilhelm II was very aggressive, rash and ambitious by nature.
- He wanted to make Germany a world power; "weltpolitik'.
- He believed Germany deserved a 'place in the sun'/overseas empire.
- He was an advocate of Drang Nach Osten: to drive eastward into the Balkans and Middle East through imperialism (navy and armament expansion).
- Planned to build a Berlin to Bagdad railway which would extend German economic and political interest.
What did Germany set out to do in 1898?
They set out to develop a navy twice the size of Britain's.
What happened in 1906 regarding the British? and what did the German's do in response?
They launched HMS Dreadnought, considered to be the most powerful battleship afloat. germany began copying this design.
The Anglo-German naval race was about?
Militarism in Anglo-German naval rivalry, which resonated with other great powers desires to expand their military capabilities. Tensions among great powers led them to prepare strategies for use if war broke out.
What was Germany's plan event of war?
The 'Schlieffen Plan' where Germany would go through Belgium to invade France.
What was France's plan in the event of war?
'Plan 17' in which they would retake the lost territories of Alsace and Lorraine and defend against the Germans.
What was the world’s population in 1900?
Describe European Society at the turn of the Century. (Account for Europe’s place in the world and how it worked as well as life expectancies).
Europe was the continent with the highest influence over the rest of the world. It was prominently divided by a class system: Lower Class/Peasants>Working Class>Middle Class>Upper Class. The life expectancy was broadly between 23-50, as it depended on your social status and the part of the world in which you were born.
Account for the classes system in Europe.
- Upper Class: Wealthy, obtained from ownership of vast amounts of land in which was usually inherited. They heavily influenced politics, and lived in prestige, making use of servants and didn’t require any talent or ability.
- Middle Class: They gained their fortune from their industries and commercial ventures, relying on connections and hard work. They mimicked the lifestyle of the upper class and sought a social and political influence.
- Working Class/Lower Class: The largest social class; enduring poor wages, long working hours and terrible living conditions, most families of this class struggled for survival. They were heavily reliant on the seasonal nature of their crops. Those of the upper class viewed them as lazy, dishonest and undeserving.
Why was there heavy migration to America?
It was considered ‘the land of opportunity’.
Which countries were major European/World Powers of the time?
Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary.
Which countries were emerging powers?
United States and Japan.
What is Urbanisation?
Rapid growth of population within urban areas, as people move away from traditional living in the countryside and move to cities.
Which countries had the highest Urbanisation?
Britain and Germany.
What were effects of the Industrial Revolution? (5)
- 1. There was a rise of a working, middle class.
- 2. Urbanisation and increase of population in cities.
- 3. A system of child labour.
- 4. Increase in population and life expectancy.
- 5. Rise of capitalism in developed countries.
Industrialisation had changed how people worked; it saw the rise of factories and machinery that replaces manual labour causing manufacturing to be become more productive and efficient.
What were some innovations that Industrialisation caused, and what else did it provide for within Europe?
Jobs, steel, and provides for militaries. Enhanced rivalry between countries. Emergence of electricity, that powered factories and allowing for electric trains to replace steam trains.
Which countries had industrialised and which hadn’t?
- Industrialised: Britain, Germany.
- Trying to industrialise: France.
- Haven’t industrialised: Russia and Southern European countries.
Which nations were the Industrial Giants and what did they lead in? How did it affect their presence in the world?
- Britain- Textiles
- Germany- Engineering
- The nations were able to expand their political, economic, social, cultural and religious influences around the world.
Why was Industrialisation important?
Imperative for a countries development, to expand their influence and dominance over the world as well as increase the living standards of people.
What did people’s improving living standards rely on in regards to industrialisation?
- Extent and nature of industries.
- Technological advances.
- Degree of commitment to modernisation.
Where an Empire exerts power over a territory in their economic and foreign dealings, involving the occupation and colonisation of such territories of another country.
What did imperialism result in?
- Competitions for an empire – colonial rivalry – which was a long term reason for WWI.
- Tension between European powers
- Alliance system – search for security
What were reasons for Imperialism?
J.A Hobson believed the reason for imperialism was economic. Industrialisation resulted in a rush to control raw materials and their markets.
Which countries had the largest Empire’s?
Britain, France, Russia
Which conference determined the fate of Africa? When was it?
The Berlin Conference in 1884.
What happened at the Berlin conference? Who was there?
15 nations divided Africa into "spheres of influence", the European nations staked their claims on Africa.
What did the Berlin conference lead to?
The Scramble for Africa.
How, why and by who were the African nations decided?
By the European Powers of the late 1800's, who took no account for the long standing tribal groups, and their rivalries. This shows the Europeans thought only of themselves.
Why was colonization in Africa important?
The only way Europe could trade with Asia was to travel around the coast of Africa. African ports were used to restock supplies (food and water) during their long voyage.
Which parts of Africa were relatively untouched by Europe, which was soon overtaken by British?
Who was Dr. Livingstone and what did he do?
A Scottish born medical missionary who brought the Christian message and medical services to Africa. He travelled throughout Africa hoping to open up trade routes to the outside world. He encouraged trade as well as colonization in Africa, as it would have a 'civilizing effect' (White mans burden).
List reasons for the Scramble for Africa.
Most Europeans didn't share Dr. Livingstone's duty of the white mans burden, and were interested in Africa for its trade. The main reason was for profit resulting in their countries prestige.
What was colonization in Africa like?
Territories were often claimed not for their value but to stop other countries claiming them. The number of colonial territories was a display of strength. The colonial power would rule from Europe, they did not settle on the land.
Which countries were involved in the scramble? Which were the new powers to become involved?
Italy, Germany and Belgium were the new powers that joined Britain, France, Spain and Portugal.
When was the first Balkan War and which countries were involved?
1912-13, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria against Turkey.
What were the countries involved in the Balkan war fighting for?
Pan-nationalism/Pan-s=Slavism. Having large parts of their ethnic populations under Ottoman sovereignty, attacked the Ottoman Empire, terminating its five-century rule in the Balkans in a seven-month campaign resulting in the Treaty of London.
What was the result of the first Balkan War?
Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria emerged victorious and the Ottoman Empire lost Albania and Macedonia and therefore possessed very little land.
What is Pan-Nationalism?
The Desire to unite all people of the same cultural and linguistic group, even if they are located within the borders of another nation. It is a form of nationalism that seeks to change existing boundaries.
What caused the second Balkan War and what was the result of it?
Bulgaria, dissatisfied with the land gained from the first Balkan War, turned on her former allies, Serbia and Greece in 1913. The were defeated, humiliated and Serbia gained even more lands.
Why did Austria-Hungary view Serbia as a threat? How could this drag other European nations into the tension.
It had expanded within a few years, increasing in power. If fighting were to break out between the two, Austria-Hungary could call on Germany, while Serbia was allied with Russia. In addition, Russia and Germany had other European connections.
For a nation to be Self-Governing, not being ruled by an outside power, free from influence/guide/control of other countries.
Viet Nam Dan Dang- a group of middle class (teachers and journalists) nationalists in Hanoi. They were the largest non communist group.
Define Vichy French.
A group pro-Nazi of France. French Government lead by Marshall Petain that cooperated with the Nazi Government controlling the Northern part of France in WWII.
The freeing of a colony from imperial rule and granting of self-government. In the context of Indochina; the removal of French imperialists control over Indochina.
Sense of national identity developed from belonging to a group sharing common cultural, linguistic, and historical ties and the desire to work with others to achieve common goals related to these, at times regardless to how it may affect other countries.
Define Cold War.
A period of political, economic, ideology rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, from around 1945 to 1991. While they did engage in direct military conflict, they did supply troops, weaponry and finances to one another's enemies.
An unskilled nature labourer in India, China and some other Asian countries.
Define Corvee Labour.
- Unpaid labour imposed by the state on certain classes of people, such as peasants, for the performance of work on public projects.
- (From knowledge): didn't they have to give one month a year to work for the bad frenchies?
A force of genderarms- solders in France arriving as an armed police force for the maintenance of public order.
What occurred after the V.N.Q.D.D were crushed by the French?
What were the aims of the V.N.Q.D.D?
To establish a republican government and expel the French from Vietnam.
What group did Ho Chi Minh found in 1930?
Indochinese Communist Party.
In what year were the Indochinese Communist Party established and by who and where was their main power base?
Ho Chi Minh. 1930. North Vietnam.
True or False: Communist idealology was second in the minds of communist resistance groups. Their immediate goals were based on nationalism- freeing their country of the French.
What were the aims of the Indochinese Communist Party?
Nationalism-freeing their country of the French. BEFORE Communism.
What was 'La Mission Civilastrice'.
- 'The Mission of Civilization'
Define Gunboat Diplomacy.
- The use of force in order to obtain an objective.
What were strategies used by the Vietminh?
- Guerilla Warfare.
Define Guerilla Warfare.
Method of warfare in which small groups engage in surprise attacks on enemy facilities, troop and supply routes.
Guerilla warfare tactics by the V.M?
Worked at night
Avoided meeting the enemy 'head on'.
Used cunning, stealthy subversion.
Harassed enemy when least expected.
Relied on dedicated troops working in small units.
Appealed to the community for help.
How did the French maintain their control in Indochina?
- With their French army and police force (I can't remember what they're called)...
- WAS IT THE FEC
- FRENCH EXPEDITIONARY CORPS
- PLEASE SAY YES
How were the Vietnamese exploited by the French?
- Peasants had their land taken from them, used by the French to grow crops on plantations for rubber and tea.
- They were paid extremely low wages for their hard larbour.
- The French exported rice for profits even during times of famine, at the expanse of the local peasants.
- Corvee Labour.
- Extensive taxation- taxs even on newspapers, stamps, licenses and essential foods. Direct or indirect taxation was earning 500 million francs.
What was corvee labour used for?
Build and maintain public works; roads, dams. Although roads, bridges, railways, schools hospitals and other infrastructure were built this didn't alleviated suffering among the Vietnamese peasants under French rule.
How did the plantation system change ownership in Vietnam?
Workers ("coolies") represented those who had lost their land due to the plantation system. While the French gained enormously from what land they had snatched, many Vietnamese resultantly struggled for survival. To survive, they volunteered for government project with low wages and benefits
Why was rubber an important commodity by 1914?
It became an important cash crop at the turn of the century, after the invention of motor cars. (I think there are others but theyre not in Indochina and I cant find them, do you remember any sam?)
How did the Japanese maintain control of Indochina and what did they do in attempt to gain the Vietnamese's support?
Disarm, imprison, murder the French as well as try to gain the support of the V's by offering to make V nominally independent under the emperor Bao Dai.
When was Japan defeated in Indochina? Did this make Vietnam free?
August Revolution of 1945. No. The weakened French remained, challenging the Vietnamese.
What events sparked the First Indochina War?
Vietminh carried out terrorist attacks on French military installments.
French killed 6000 Vietnamese in the shelling of Port Arthur.
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