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What is photosynthesis used for? (1.6)
- Used to make glucose, an energy source.
- Used for growth, repair, maintenance (fluid movement and transport) and reproduction.
- To manufacture food (producers).
During photosynthesis, all organisms release energy as ___ (1) during the process of ___ (2)to fuel ___ ___ (3). (1.6)
- 1. Heat
- 2. Respiration
- 3. Chemical Reactions
What is the word, chemical and balanced equations for photosynthesis? (1.6)
- Carbon Dioxide + Water ------(sunlight + clorophyll)------> Glucose + Oxygen
- C02 + H20 -----(sunlight + chlorophyll)-----> C6H206 + 02
- 6C02+6H20-----(sunlight + chlorophyll-----> C6H1206+602
What is Aerobic Respiration? Where does it occur?
The release of energy for organisms to use. Also called Mitochondrial Respiration, as it occurs in the mitochondria of a cell. (1.6)
What happens in Aerobic Respiration?
Glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, and in doing so, energy is released. Energy, ATP (Adenotrisulphate) is released as heat from this process, and is also used for functions in cells such as growth, repair and cell maintenance.
Why is respiration required? (1.6)
Required to remove oxygen from the air, return carbon dioxide to the air and provide energy.
What is aerobic respiration? (1.6)
Respiration that sometimes occurs as a result of inadequate amounts of oxygen. It produces ATP, however much less than regular anaerobic respiration.
List and define relationships between organisms and symbiosis. (2.3)
Symbiosis: Term used to describe two organisms living together, in a close relationship that is beneficial to at least one of them.
Allelopathy: The production of specific biomolecules by one plant that can be beneficial or detrimental to another plant.
Parasitism: A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is harmed.
Mutualism: A symbiotic relationship in where both species benefit.
Commensalism: A symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is unaffected.
List factors that affect the numbers of predator-prey populations. (8) (2.2)
- Number of predators competing for the same prey.
- Availability of prey's food.
- Birth rates.
- Death rate.
- Number of male and females.
- Size of ecosystem for supporting the predator and prey numbers.
- Movement between ecosystems.
- Number of shelter sites available.
Give examples of allelopathy. (2.3) ????
Define adaptation. (2.6)
An adaptation is any characteristic or feature that makes an organism suited to its environment, thus increasing the organisms likelihood of survival and reproduction.
What are the three types of adaptations. (2.6)
- Structural-a physical characteristic.
- Physiological- an organisms function or process.
- Behavioral-the way in which an organism acts.
Identify some adaptations of living things. (2.8)
Mangroves have pneumatophores; provide structural support and required to ensure enough oxygen is provided for the plant.
Mangrove leaves possess glands that excrete salt.
Eucalypts having a waxy cuticle on their leaves which reflects heat and light and minimizes water loss.
Cactus plants like the Mexican cactus have small spiky leaves to reduce water loss and shallow, widespread roots to catch water moisture.
Kangaroos do not sweat to avoid water loss.
Kangaroos lick their forearms to lose heat as the evaporation of saliva draws heat from the surface.
Kangaroos dilate or swell their blood vessels, bringing them to the surface, allowing them to lose heat more rapidly.
What are the three bases of cell theory? (1.1)
- 1. All living things are made up of cells.
- 2. Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of an organism.
- 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
What was Robert Hooke's contribution to cell theory? (1.1)
Introduced the term 'cell' in 1663.
What was Anton Van Leeuwenhoek's contribution? (1.1)
Discovered bacteria, developed a simple microscope using a powerful lens, may have seen nuclei.
What was Robert Brown's contribution? (1.1)
Discovered the nucleus in cells in 1801.
What was Schleiden and Schwann's contribution? (1.1)
- Proposed cell theory:
- 1. All living things are made of cells.
- 2. Cells are the basic unit of organisms
What was Rudolf Virchow's contribution? (1.1)
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Why are technological advances significant to the development of cell theory? (1.2)
Without the technological advancements of the microscope, cell theory could not have been formulated as the evidence which supported and ideas that led to it relied solely on microscopes. The microscope allowed people to see the cells, allowing development of cell theory. Therefore it is deduced that technological advances go hand in hand with the development of cell theory.
What is a chloroplast and are they responsible for?
Organelles that are green in colour, due to the presence of a pigment called chlorophyll. Responsible for photosynthesis.
What are vacuoles and what are they responsible for?
Large, permanent, fluid filled sacs in the cytoplasm of mature cells, each consisting of cell sap.
What is a eukaryotic cell?
A cell with membrane bound organelles, with genetic material contained within the nucleus, separated from the cytoplasm through a nuclear membrane.
What is a prokaryotic cell?
Organisms have their genetic material separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane, simply having a strand of genetic material floating within the cytoplasm.
What is a cell membrane and what is its use?
A selective barrier that permits the passage of only certain molecules into or out of cells, giving the feature of being semi-permeable.
What is a nucleus and its use?
Nucleus is the 'control centre' of the cell, storing information for all cell activities. It contains nucleoplasm, nucleic DNA, chromatin material (chromosomes) and the nucleolus.
What is the endoplasmic reticulum and what is its use?
- The transport and processing of proteins and lipids.
- Provides transport pathways between the nucleus and the cells environment, allowing intracellular transport.
What are and what is the use of ribosomes?
Dense granules that are the 'machinery' carrying out the genetically coded instructions of DNA to produce any proteins necessary for cell functioning. Protein synthesis.
What are Golgi Bodies and what are their use?
Curved shape organelle that carries out packaging, processing and sorting cell products. Involved in adding proteins to carbs to cell products and provide a membrane around them to 'package' them.
What are lysosomes and what are their use?
An example of Golgi bodies, they a little fluid filled sacs filled with digestive enzymes for intracellular indigestion. Lysosomes break down worn out cell organelles, so that materials can be recycled and used to make new organelles.
What is the mitochondria and what is it used for?
The 'powerhouses' of the cell, produces chemicals through chemical respiration. Rod shaped, or round sometimes. Number of Mit. depends on how much energy needs to be produced to carry out functions. Produce ATP. Surrounded by a double membrane.
What is the Cytoskeleton and what is it used for?
A network of microtubules and microfilaments which extend throughout the cytoplasm of a cell, organising and holding organelles in place.
What are centrioles and what are they used for?
Dense, granular structures that have an important role in the production and formation of spindle fibres when a cell divides.
What are organic compounds?
Chemical substances that are synthesized by living things and contain atoms of hydrogen and carbon.
What are inorganic compounds?
Part of the inanimate, non living world. These substances do not contain the elements of carbon and hydrogen combined.
Give examples of organic compounds.
- Carbohydrates (sugars and starch)
- Lipids (fat and oils)
- Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
Give examples of inorganic compounds.
- Mineral salts (calcium salts, sodium chloride, phosphates)
- Some gases; CO2 and O2O
What are macromolecules or polymers?
Organic compounds that are very large. They are assembles into a variety of structures and make up components of cells and their organelles.
- They include:
- Nucleic Acids
What are monomers?
Macromolecules that build up from smaller organic molecules.
What are Carbohydrates and what are their use?
- A group of organic molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Uses:
- Sugar-quick source of energy. (Required by the mitochondria to produce ATP, the form of energy a cell needs to function.
What is ATP?
Adenotrisulphate. It is the energy required in a cell for it to carry out its functions. produced by the mitochondria.
What are polysaccharides? Give examples and what they are needed for.
Sugars that may be dissolved within the vacuole of a plant; cellulose, starch, glycogen.
Cellulose: forms a structural part of cell walks in plant cells, giving them strength and support.
Starch: a form of stored energy in plant cells. It is most commonly stored as starch grains in the chloroplasts or in the cytoplasm.
Glycogen: a form of energy stored as granules in the cytoplasm of animal cells.
What are lipids and what is their use?
- Macromolecules that have an oily, greasy consistency. They contain little oxygen atoms but many hydrogen atoms.
- They are extremely important as a structural part of all membranes in cells.
- They are important biological fuels, storing large quantities of energy for both plant and animal cells.
- Some lipids are essential for structural parts of hormones.
What are proteins and what is their use?
Proteins are large, complex macromolecules and they are the second most abundant chemical in cells. They are needed as structural components in cells and tissues; together with water, they form the basic structure of protoplasm (cytoskeleton). Important structural part of cell membranes and together with lipids, regulate the passage of substances across cell membranes.
What are nucleic acids and what is their use?
Made up of repeating units called nucleotides, linked together to form RNA (single strand) or DNA (double strand). The DNA holds the information required to control the cells and therefore the whole organism. DNA is also responsible for transmitting hereditary information.
The movement of any molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration of that substance until and equilibrium is reached. This does not required any energy input and is therefore known as a passive movement of substances.
The movement of water molecules from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration through a selectively permeable membrane. This does not required energy input and is therefore known as a passive movement of substances.
Define Active Transport.
The movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration requiring the input of energy.
How does the surface area to volume ration affect the rate of movement of substances into and out of cells?
Substances that enter cells must travel from the outside environment across the surface of the cell and then diffuse inwards until they reach the centre of the cell. If a cell has a large volume, the organelles in the centre of the cell are further from the outside. If a cell is smaller or flatter, organelles in the centre are closer to the outer surface. This increases the efficiency of substances diffusing into or out of the cell due the cell having a large surface area to volume ratio. Folding helps increase the surface area to volume ratio.
List the functional organization of living things.
- Multicellular organism-animal, plant.
- Systems-Digestive System, Cardiovascular system, nervous system. -- Transport System.
- Organs- Heart, Lungs, Intestine--Xylem, Ploem.
- Tissues- Muscle Tissue, Gland tissue-- photosynthetic tissue, ploem tissue.
- Cells- Muscle Cell, gland cell--epidermal cell, guard cell.
- Organelles- nucleus, mitochondrion--chloroplast.
What three substances are essential for the chemical process of photosynthesis.
Chlorophyll, Water, Carbon Dioxide.
Explain what occurs in photosynthesis.
Plants capture light energy using clorophyll (pignment present in plant cells). This energy is used to combine carbon dioxide and water that plannts obtain fron the soil and transport up their leaves, all to majke sugar and oxygen.
What are organisms who photosynthesise called?
What do producers provide?
Glucose and energy and other forms of stored food: Lipids, Proteins and complex Carbohydrates.
What is a Lipid?
- Fats and Oils.
- A group of long chain chemical comounds that are high in energy, insoluble in water and form the main component of the bilayer in cell membranes.
What are proteins?
A complex macromolecule consisting of a polypeptide chain of amino acids containing the element nitrogen as well as other chemicals found in organic molecules.
What is the origin of energy in ecosystems?
True or False: Photosynthesis is not one chemical reaction but multiple chemical reactions that take place in the chloroplasts of green plant cells and the cells of some photosynthesising bacteria.
What are the stages of photosynthesis and what are they/what happens?
The light phase (photolysis) involves the splitting of water using light energy.
The light independent phase (aka the carbon fixation stage) involves using carbon dioxide to make sugar. No light is used in this stage.
What is the role of leaves?
- Provide glucose (energy)
- Release oxygen
What is ingestion?
Intake of complex organic food aka eating.
What time digestion?
Is the breakdown of chunks food into smaller, simpler substances that can be easily absorbed.
What is egestion?
Expulsion of undigested food as waste.
What are the role of incisors?
Grasp, hold and bite food.
What is the role of canines?
Stabbing and gripping prey.
What are Premolars?
Chewing, cutting flesh and cracking hard body parts.
What are molars?
Back teeth used for grinding and chewing.
What is the role of teeth?
- 1) Mechanical or Physical breakdown where food is chewed and large chunks are broken down into smaller bits.
- 2) Chemical breakdown where digestive enzymes act on the food to break them down into smaller, less complex substances.
- 3) Increase the surface area to volume ratio.
What are xylem?
Vascular tissue that is used for the transport of water and dissolved inorganic materials from the roots to the leaves.
What are Phloem?
Specialized tissue that transports sugars from the roots to the leaves.
Where does mitosis take place in plants?
- Apical meristems
Where does mitosis take place in mammals?
- Protective cells: skin, hair, scales, fingernails.
- Bone cells- bone marrow
- Liver cells
- Blood cells
What is the role of mitosis?
Growth, Repair (replacement of worn out cells), Genetic stability.
What did the Urey - Miller experiment show?
It was the first experimental evidence that is possible for inorganic substances to produce living things (organic substances). The theory of biochemical evolution.
Technologies that assisted in the increased understanding of evolution and living things:
- Light and Electron microscope
- Radio metric dating
- Bio chemical analysis
- Genetic engineering
Identify the major stages in living things.
- Organic molecules
- Organic compounds
- Membranes- living things
- Eucaryotic cells
- Colonial organisms
- Multicellular organisms
Why do scientists need to classify organisms?
- Simplicity: easier to simplify the description of organisms.
- Communication: easier to commune with fellow scientists when talking about an organism/species.
- Predictions: Assists in making predictions what other organisms might classify under.
- Relationships: Assists in interpreting relationships between organisms such as having a common ancestor.
- Conservation: provides info on their habitat and functioning which can inform how to protect them from extinction.
What is the six kingdoms classification system?
Butts And Pie Play with Fun Animals
What is the five kingdoms classification system?
Mother Poo Plays with Fun Animals
Three superkingdoms classification system?