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What are the 4 possible outcomes of acute inflammation?
- 1. Resolution (regeneration)
- 2. Fibrosis and scarring
- 3. Abscess formation
- 4. Progression to chronic inflammation
Explain the differences between Parenchymal tissue vs Stromal tissue
- Parenchymal tissue: functional cells of particular organ
- Stromal Tissues: supporting connective tissues and cells
True/False: Tissue repair overlaps with the inflammatory process
- Can result in: Regeneration, Fibrosis, or Combination
Regeneration of tissues:
- replacement of injured/dead parenchymal cells with new parenchymal cells of the SAME TYPEOccurs mainly in labile tissues
Fibrosis and scarring occurs mainly in what kind of tissues?
- Permanent tissues
- replacement of parenchymal cells with new connective, fibrous tissue--->Scars
Give examples of Stable Tissue
- parenchyma of organs such as the liver, kidney, and smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts
- Combination tissue repair often seen
What is interesting about stable tissue?
- Contains cells that normally stop going through mitosis when growth stops in the specific tissue.
- Can re-enter the cell cycle if triggered by certain stimuli
What does potency mean in cell proliferation?
Refers to the cells differentiation potential
Cells that are fully differentiated often have (reduced/increased) rates of proliferation.
Name for completely undifferentiated cells that can proliferate and differentiate into any type of cell of the embryo/placenta.
- Totipotent cells
- Only found in first few cell divisions
How to pluripotent stem cells differ from totipotent stem cells?
- Often referred to as embryonic stem cells
- Can differentiate into any type of cell within the designated germ layer (meso-, endo-, or ectoderm)
- DOES NOT INCLUDE PLACENTA
Adult/Tissue/Somatic Stem Cells differ from totipotent and pluripotent cells in what way?
- Somatic stem cells can only differentiate into a few types of similar cells.
- Example: hematopoietic stem cells in the blood
What are progenitor cells?
Differentiated cells that can proliferate into different stages of the same type of cell
What are the three phases of Fibrosis connective tissue healing?
- 1. Angiogenisis
- 2. Emigration of fibroblasts and deposition of collagen, elastin fibers
- 3. Maturation and reorganization of fibrous tissue
During connective tissue healing, ____ days after injury, granulation tissue forms.
- 3-5 days post-injury
- includes angiogenesis
The second phase of connective tissue healing, Emigration of Fibroblasts occurs ____ days post-injury.
- 4-42 days post-injury
- collagen deposited into extracellular matrix
The third phase of connective tissue healing, Maturation and reorganization occurs ___ days post-injury
- After about 40 days
- Scar loses red appearance as capillaries are removed via apoptosis
Skin wounds can heal by either ______ or ______ intention.
Primary or secondary
How long do epidermal cells proliferate in primary intention healing?
- 24-48 hours
- Incisions heal from SIDE TO SIDE
The remodeling phase of cutaneous wound healing occurs approx ____?
3 weeks post injury
True/false: Most wounds regain full tensile strength of unwounded skin after healing is complete.
- False. Most do not regain full strength
- Primary healing: 70%-sutured, 10%-after sutures removed, 70-80% after 3 months
- benign tumor-like masses caused by excess production of fibrosis and scar tissue
- genetically predisposed
- common in ethnicities w/ darker pigments
- can impair joint movement
What are some causes of impaired wound healing?
- Malnutrition: Vit C, Vit A, Protein
- Impaired blood flow/oxygen
- Impaired inflammatory/immune responses
- Foreign bodies
_____ tissues contain cells that normally stop dividing when growth ceases.
The extracellular ____ is secreted locally and assembles into a network of spaces surrounding tissue cells during the process of tissue regeneration.
When regeneration cannot occur, healing by replacement with connective tissue occurs, a process that terminates in _____ formation.
The term ____ factor is generally applied to small hormone like proteins that increase cell size and cell division.
An abnormality in healing by scar tissue repair is the formation of ______, which are benign tumorlike masses caused by excess production of scar tissue.
Factors that affect wound ___ include malnutrition, impaired blood flow and oxygen delivery, impaired inflammatory responses, infections, wound seperation and presence of foreign bodies as well as age.