Chapter 4

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  1. What are the 4 possible outcomes of acute inflammation?
    • 1. Resolution (regeneration)
    • 2. Fibrosis and scarring
    • 3. Abscess formation
    • 4. Progression to chronic inflammation
  2. Explain the differences between Parenchymal tissue vs Stromal tissue
    • Parenchymal tissue: functional cells of particular organ
    • Stromal Tissues: supporting connective tissues and cells
  3. True/False: Tissue repair overlaps with the inflammatory process
    • True!
    • Can result in: Regeneration, Fibrosis, or Combination
  4. Regeneration of tissues:
    • replacement of injured/dead parenchymal cells with new parenchymal cells of the SAME TYPE
    • Occurs mainly in labile tissues
  5. Fibrosis and scarring occurs mainly in what kind of tissues?
    • Permanent tissues
    • replacement of parenchymal cells with new connective, fibrous tissue--->Scars
  6. Give examples of Stable Tissue
    • parenchyma of organs such as the liver, kidney, and smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, and fibroblasts
    • Combination tissue repair often seen
  7. What is interesting about stable tissue?
    • Contains cells that normally stop going through mitosis when growth stops in the specific tissue.
    • Can re-enter the cell cycle if triggered by certain stimuli
  8. What does potency mean in cell proliferation?
    Refers to the cells differentiation potential
  9. Cells that are fully differentiated often have (reduced/increased) rates of proliferation.
  10. Name for completely undifferentiated cells that can proliferate and differentiate into any type of cell of the embryo/placenta.
    • Totipotent cells
    • Only found in first few cell divisions
  11. How to pluripotent stem cells differ from totipotent stem cells?
    • Often referred to as embryonic stem cells
    • Can differentiate into any type of cell within the designated germ layer (meso-, endo-, or ectoderm) 
  12. Adult/Tissue/Somatic Stem Cells differ from totipotent and pluripotent cells in what way?
    • Somatic stem cells can only differentiate into a few types of similar cells.
    • Example: hematopoietic stem cells in the blood
  13. What are progenitor cells?
    Differentiated cells that can proliferate into different stages of the same type of cell
  14. What are the three phases of Fibrosis connective tissue healing?
    • 1. Angiogenisis
    • 2. Emigration of fibroblasts and deposition of collagen, elastin fibers
    • 3. Maturation and reorganization of fibrous tissue
  15. During connective tissue healing, ____ days after injury, granulation tissue forms.
    • 3-5 days post-injury
    • includes angiogenesis
  16. The second phase of connective tissue healing, Emigration of Fibroblasts occurs ____ days post-injury.
    • 4-42 days post-injury
    • collagen deposited into extracellular matrix
  17. The third phase of connective tissue healing, Maturation and reorganization occurs ___ days post-injury
    • After about 40 days
    • Scar loses red appearance as capillaries are removed via apoptosis
  18. Skin wounds can heal by either ______ or ______ intention.
    Primary or secondary
  19. How long do epidermal cells proliferate in primary intention healing?
    • 24-48 hours
    • Incisions heal from SIDE TO SIDE
  20. The remodeling phase of cutaneous wound healing occurs approx ____?
    3 weeks post injury
  21. True/false: Most wounds regain full tensile strength of unwounded skin after healing is complete.
    • False. Most do not regain full strength
    • Primary healing: 70%-sutured, 10%-after sutures removed, 70-80% after 3 months
  22. Keloids
    • benign tumor-like masses caused by excess production of fibrosis and scar tissue
    • genetically predisposed
    • common in ethnicities w/ darker pigments
    • can impair joint movement
  23. What are some causes of impaired wound healing?
    • Malnutrition: Vit C, Vit A, Protein
    • Impaired blood flow/oxygen
    • Impaired inflammatory/immune responses
    • Infection
    • Foreign bodies
    • Age
  24. _____ tissues contain cells that normally stop dividing when growth ceases.
    Stable tissue
  25. The extracellular ____ is secreted locally and assembles into a network of spaces surrounding tissue cells during the process of tissue regeneration.
  26. When regeneration cannot occur, healing by replacement with connective tissue occurs, a process that terminates in _____ formation.
  27. The term ____ factor is generally applied to small hormone like proteins that increase cell size and cell division.
  28. An abnormality in healing by scar tissue repair is the formation of ______, which are benign tumorlike masses caused by excess production of scar tissue.
  29. Factors that affect wound ___ include malnutrition, impaired blood flow and oxygen delivery, impaired inflammatory responses, infections, wound seperation and presence of foreign bodies as well as age.
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Chapter 4
2014-09-03 23:43:40
Material from chapter 4
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