TCC Biology-Ch3

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TCC Biology-Ch3
2014-09-03 20:29:18
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  1. Oxygen is more electronegative than Hydrogen, so theelectrons of the covalent bonds spend more time closer to oxygen to hydrogen.
    Polar Covalent Bonds
  2. This unequal sharing of electrons and water's V-like shape make it a ________, meaning that its overall charge is unevenly distributed: the oxygen region of the molecule has a partial negative charge, and each hydrogen has a partial positive charge.
    Polar Molecule
  3. Collectively, the hydrogen bonds hold the substance together, a phenomenon called ______
  4. _____, the clinging of one substance to another, also plays a role.
  5. Related to cohesion is ____ ____, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.
    Surface Tension
  6. Anything that moves has  ____ ____,  the energy of motion.
    Kinetic Energy
  7. ____ is a form of energy.
  8. _____ is a measure of heat intensity that represents the average kinetic energy of the molecules, regardless of volume.
  9. ____ __ ____ is the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted  from the liquid to the gaseous state.
    Heat of vaporization
  10. The ______ ____ occurs because the "hottest" molecules, those with the greatest kinetic energy, are the most likely to leave as gas.
    Evaporative cooling
  11. A liquid tha is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is called a ____
  12. The dissolving agent of a solution is the ____
  13. An ____ ____ is one in which water is the solvent.
    Aqueous Solution
  14. The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion is called a _____ _____.
    Hydration Shell
  15. Any substance that has an affinity for water is said to be _____
  16. Some molecules in cells are so large that they do not dissolve. Instead, they remain suspended in the aqueous liquid of the cell. Such a mixture is an example of a ____, a stable suspension of fine particle in a liquid.
  17. Substances that do not have an affinity for water. Substances that are nonionic and nonpolar (or otherwise cannot form hydrogen bonds) actually seem to repel water; these substances are said to be _______
  18. the sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule.
    Molecular Mass
  19. ______ - the number of moles of solute per liter of solution-is the unit of concentration most often used by biologists for aqueous solutions.
  20. Occasionally, a hydrogen atom participating in a hydrogen bond between two water molecules shifts from one molecule to the other. When this happens, the hydrogen atom leaves its electron behind, and what is actually transferred is a _____ ___ a single proton with a charge of 1+.
    Hydrogen ion (H+)
  21. The water molecule that lost a proton is now _______ ___ which has a charge of 1-
    Hydroxide ion (H3O+)
  22. The proton binds to the other water molecule, making that molecule a ______ ___
    Hydronium ion (H3O+)
  23. An ____ is a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
  24. A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution is called a _____.
  25. The _____ of a solution is defined as the negative log-arithm (base10) of the hydrogen ion concentration :
    pH = -log[H+]
    for neutral aqueous solution, [H+] is  10-7 M, giving us
    -log 10-7 =-(-7) =7
  26. A _____ is a substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution.
  27. When CO2 dissolves in sweater, it reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which lowers ocean pH, a process know as ______
    Ocean Acidification