Characterized by hyaline thickening or proliferative changes in small arteries and arterioles, most prominent in kidneys.
Caused by formation of fibrous plaques or atheroma in the intima of arteries.
- It has a central core containing cholesterol, lipid laden macrophages, foam cells calcium, and necrotic debris.
- Covered by fibrous cap with smooth muscles, foam cells, fibrin, collagen, and elastins.
Develop from a fatty streak, or the focal accumulation of lipid laded foam cells.
Plaques cause morbidity due to:
Hemorrhage and ulceration into the plaque - aneurysm
Inflammatory and often necrotizing immune complex inflammation
Examples of Vasculitis Syndromes (7)
Giant cell arteritis
Thromboangitis obliterans (Buerger disease)
Manifested by recurrent vasospams of small arteries and arterioles with pallor and cyanosis of fingers and toes. Usually due to cold
Occurs when Raynaud's Disease is secondary tp an underlying disorder (SLE or schleroderma)
Hypertension of unknown etiology
Caused by genetic and environmental factors (Na, stress, obesity, inactivity)
- renal diseases (renal artery stenosis, renal parenchymal disease)
- endocrine diseases (Conn Syndrome, pheochromocytoma, DM)
- coarcatation of the aorta, pre eclampsia, CNS disorders, drugs and chemicals
- Can be a complication pf essential or secondary hypertension
- Follows an accelerated clinical course with end organ damage