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The inner strivings that initiate a person's actions.
The process of starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities.
- 1. Preferences for one activity over another
- 2. Enthusiasm and vigor of a person's responses
- 3. Persistence of organized action toward relevant goals.
From Latin movere "to move"
A physiological, psychological, or sociological want or desire.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Maslow's framework of the five core needs to explain human's motivation.
- Physiological (basic) needs: Needs of the human body, such as food, water, air, and sex.
- Safety needs: Needs include protection from physical harm, ill health, economic disaster, and the unexpected.
- Social needs: Needs for social interaction and companionship.
- Esteem needs: The awareness of the importance of others and of the regard accorded by others.
- Self-actualization needs: The human need to fully realize one's potential.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
The theory popularized by the work of Frederick Herzberg, that the absence of some job conditions dissatisfies employees but that the presence of those conditions doesn't build employee motivation, and that the absence of other job conditions doesn't dissatisfy employees but that their presence builds employee motivation.
Process Theories of Motivation: Expectancy Theory
A theory that defines motivation, of the force to perform, as defined as expectancy times instrumentality times valence. M = E x I x V
Victor H. Vroom
Vroom's Expectancy Theory Three determinants of motivation
- The expectancy that individual effort will result in performance: Employees generally are motivated to exert effort if they believe their effort will result in high performance.
- The belief that performance will result in reward: Employees are motivated if they believe performance will lead to desired rewards. Whether performance is instrumental in achieving rewards.
- The valence of rewards: Valance refers to an employee's preference for rewards he believes will result from performing well. Low Valence = not highly preferred. High Valence = highly preferred rewards.
Practical Implications of Expectancy Theory
- Determine what outcomes employees prefer
- Define, communicate, and clarify the level of performance that is desired.
- Establish attainable performance goals.
- Link desired outcomes to performance goal achievement.
J. Stacy Adams' Equity Theory
Worker's perceptions of how they are being treated. It is based on the assessment process workers use to evaluate the fairness or justice of organizational outcomes and the adjustment process used to maintain perceptions of fairness.
Reference Ratio: Equity Theory
The ratio comparing a person's input to outcome
The concept that different rewards to individuals should not be based on arbitrary criteria.
The concept that a reward should be clearly stated and impartially provided.
Reinforcement Theory of Motivation
considers the use of positive or negative reinforcers to motivate or create an environment of motivation.
Thorndikes's law of effect
Behavior that results in a pleasing outcome will likely be repeated; however, behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated.
Operant Conditioning - B.F. Skinner
Controlling work behavior by manipulating the consequences.
- Two principles
- Thorndike's law of effect
- Properly scheduled rewards influence on behaviors
techniques for applying the principles of operant conditioning to the control of individual behavior.
An approach to motivation that uses principles of operant conditioning. Operant behavior is learned on the basis of consequences. If a behavior causes a desired outcome it is reinforced, and because of its consequences it is liely to be repeated. Thus behavior is conditioned by adjusting its consequences.
Four types of reinforcement for behavior modification
- Positive Reinforcement: An increase in the frequency of a response that results when the response is followed by a positive reinforcer.
- Negative Reinforcement: An increase in the frequency of a response that is brought about by removing a disliked event immediately after the response occurs.
- Extinction: withholding positive reinforcement
- Punishment: The introduction of something disliked or the removal of something liked following a particular response in order to decrease the frequency of that response.
Quality of Work Life
An attempt through a formal program to integrate employee needs and well-being with the intention of improved productivity, greater worker involvement, and higher levels of job satisfaction.
Small groups of workers who meet regularly with their supervisor as their leader to solve work-related problems.