Final part 2

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Final part 2
2010-09-07 13:39:29

Final part 2
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  1. Arthropoda
    most abundant phylum
  2. Echinodermata
    have a water vascular system
  3. water vascular system
    a network of water vessels in the body, the tube feet being operated by hydraulicpressure within the vessels, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration.
  4. Porifera
    at the cellular level of organization
  5. Nematoda
    • A. pseudocoelomates
    • B. aucoelomate
    • C eucoelomate
  6. Platyhelminthes
    • A. pseudocoelomates
    • B. aucoelomate
    • C eucoelomate
  7. Annelida
    • A. pseudocoelomates
    • B. aucoelomate
    • C eucoelomate
  8. Mollusca
    coelomates and the 2nd largest [in size] invertebrate phylum
  9. Cephalothorax
    the fused head and thorax of spiders and other chelicerate arthropods.
  10. Problems associated with exoskeleton.
    • Solution(Joints in exoskeleton.)
    • GROWTH
    • Solution(Molting)
  11. Benefits of Exoskeleton
    • Support
    • Locomotion
    • Mechanical protection
    • Retards evaporation (in air) and/or osmosis (in water)
    • Reduction of coelom & segmentation
    • Segments fused
  12. Hemolymph
    a fluid equivalent to blood in most invertebrates,
  13. hemocoel
    the primary body cavity of most invertebrates, containing circulatory fluid.
  14. ganglia
    Anatomy a structure containing a number of nerve cell bodies, typically linked by synapses, and oftenforming a swelling on a nerve fiber.
  15. What two "typical" arthropod body regions are fused into the cephalothorax?
    Carapace and walking legs
  16. How many major body regions do insects have?
    3 body regions; head, thorax, abdomen
  17. Why do the spiracles of the respiratory tract open to the outside of the body?
    So air can pass through the trachea and then gas exchange will occur.
  18. ___grasshopper a. Class Merostomata
    ___ centipede b. Class Arachnida
    ___horseshoe crab c. Class Chilopoda
    ___millipede d. Class Diplopoda
    ___scorpion e. Class Malacostraca
    ___crayfish f. Class insecta
    • f
    • c
    • a
    • d
    • b
    • e
    • b
    • e
  19. Arthopods have a/ an ______circulatory system and a/an_____ digestive system
    open, complete
  20. ossicles
    • a small piece of calcified material forming part of the skeleton of an invertebrate animal such as an echinoderm.
    • Which makes echinoderms, endoskeleton.
  21. Class Asteroidea (Echinodermata)
    • (sea stars)
    • Typically have 5 arms which merge with a central disc
    • Mouth is located in the center of oral surface which is directed downward
  22. Water Vascular System; order of water flowing through sea star
    madreporite-stone canal-ring canal-radial canal -lateral canals-ampullae-ambulacral grooves
  23. papulae
    function in gas exchange and excretion
  24. pedicellaria
    Other projections on the body wall include tiny jaw-like appendages
  25. Class Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata)
    • (brittle stars)
    • Typically have five arms which they use to locomote
    • Tend to be secretive and often nocturnal
    • Arms seem brittle or fragile, but regeneration is more pronounced in this class.
  26. Class Echinoidea (Echinodermata)
    • (sea urchins, sand dollars)
    • Lack arms
    • Body is enclosed in a shell or test
    • Body surface is usually covered with moveable spines
    • Spherical body
    • Ambulacral plates bearing tube feet that radiate out toward the aboral surface
    • Use podia and spines during locomotion
    • The spines are moveable and articulate with the with the calcareous ossicles
  27. Aristotle's lantern
    a conical structure of calcareous plates and muscles supporting the rasping teeth of a sea urchin.
  28. Class Holothuroidea (Echinodermata)
    • (sea cucumbers)
    • Lack arms
    • Oral-aboral axis is greatly extended
    • Endoskeleton is reduced to a few ossicles scattered over the surface of the animal making them rather soft bodied
    • Some species crawl along the substrate using podia; others have peristaltic locomotion via muscle contractions
  29. Class Crinoidea(Echinodermata)
    • (sea lilies, feather stars)
    • Aboral surface is attached to the substrate by means of a bendable stalk
    • The portion of the crinoid body attached to the stalk is called the crown; bears a number of arms
    • Along the length of the arms are branches called pinnules
  30. Given that modern echinoderms and chordates look nothing alike, what factors have led zoologist to propose a close evolutionary relationship between these who phylas?
    • They are both deuterostomes;
    • 1.their mouth develop from the second embryonic opening,
    • 2 they exhibit indeterminate development, and
    • 3 embryonic cells divide by radial cleavage
  31. ___ asterias a. Class Crinoidea
    ___ sea lilies, feather stars b.Class Ophiuroidea
    ___ sea cucumbers c. Class Echinoidea
    ___ brittle stars d. Class Asteroidea
    ___ soft cylindrical body with leathery skin e. Class Holothuroidea
    ___body contains stalk; moith and anus on oral surface
    ___ body plates fused into solid test with long, movable spines
    • d
    • a
    • e
    • b
    • e
    • a
    • c
  32. Five major characteristics of Chordata
    • Notochord
    • Dorsal tubular nerve cord
    • Pharyngeal pouches
    • Endostyle or thyroid gland
    • Postanal tail
  33. Integument
    epidermis, dermis
  34. Class Chondrichthyes (chordata)
    sharks, rays, skates
  35. Class Osteichthyes (chordata)
    bony fish (or Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii)
  36. Class Amphibia (chordata)
    frogs, toads, salamanders
  37. Class Reptilia (chordata)
    snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodilians
  38. Class Aves(chordata)
  39. Class Mammalia(chordata)
  40. Swim bladder
    a gas-filled sac present in the body of many bony fishes, used to maintain and control buoyancy.
  41. What is the function of the lateral lines along the fish's body?
    a visible line along the side of a fish consisting of a series of sense organs that detect pressure andvibration.
  42. Intestine
    shorter for carnivores and longer for herbivores
  43. Does the vertebral column extend all the way to the caudal fin?
  44. __ gills a.reproductive
    __ liver b. excretory
    __pyloric ceca c. digestive
    __kidney d. respiratory
    __gonad e. circulatory
    • d
    • c
    • c
    • b
    • a
    • b
    • e
    • b
  45. ectothermic
    their body temperature depends on the environment and restricts their range.
  46. how many chambers does a frog heart have? id the circulatory system open or closed?
    It had a 3 chamber heart and it has a closed circulatory system
  47. The Beaded lizard and Gila monster
    are the only venomous lizards in the world, and both occur in North America.
  48. what anatomical modification does the snake skull have that permits swallowing large prey?
    The two mandibles of the lower jaw are not fused together at the front of the mouth which allow them to spread apart.
  49. ___turtles a. synapsid
    ___birds b. diapsid
    ___mammals c. anapsid
    • c
    • b
    • a
    • b
    • b
    • b
  50. Ascon
  51. sycon
  52. leucon
  53. blood cells
  54. epithelial
  55. Bone connective tissue
  56. Class Merostomata(Arthropods)
    Horseshoe crab
  57. Class Arachnida(Arthropods)
    Spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, trantulas.
  58. Class Diplopoda(Arthropods)
  59. Class Chilopoda(Arthropods)
  60. Class Insecta(Arthropods)
  61. Class Malacostraca(Arthropods)
    crayfish, lobsters, crabs, shrimp, isopods
  62. Class Chondrichthyes (Chordata)
    Sharks, rays, skates
  63. Class actinopterygii (Chordata)
    Ray-finned fishes
  64. Class Cubozoa (Cnidaria)
    Box Jellyfish
  65. Class Anthozoa(Cnidaria)
    Sea Anemones,Corals
  66. Class Hydrozoa(Cnidaria)
  67. Class Scyphozoa(Cnidaria)
    True Jellyfish
  68. Class Turbellaria (Platyhelminthes)
  69. Class Tremetoda(Platyhelminthes)
  70. Class Cestoda(Platyhelminthes)
  71. Class Polychaeta(Annelida)
    Sandworms clamworms tubeworms fanworms scaleworm lugeworm
  72. Class Oligochaeta(Annelida)
  73. Class Hirudinea(Annelida)
  74. Class Scaphopoda (Mollusca)
    Tusk shells
  75. Class Polyplacaphora (Mollusca)
  76. Class Gastropoda (Mollusca)
    snail slug nudibranchs
  77. Class Bivalvia (Mollusca)
    Clams oysters mussels scallops
  78. Class Cephalopoda (Mollusca)
    squids octopuses, nautiluses