a network of water vessels in the body, the tube feet being operated by hydraulicpressure within the vessels, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration.
at the cellular level of organization
coelomates and the 2nd largest [in size] invertebrate phylum
the fused head and thorax of spiders and other chelicerate arthropods.
Problems associated with exoskeleton.
Solution(Joints in exoskeleton.)
Benefits of Exoskeleton
Retards evaporation (in air) and/or osmosis (in water)
Reduction of coelom & segmentation
a fluid equivalent to blood in most invertebrates,
the primary body cavity of most invertebrates, containing circulatory fluid.
Anatomy a structure containing a number of nerve cell bodies, typically linked by synapses, and oftenforming a swelling on a nerve fiber.
What two "typical" arthropod body regions are fused into the cephalothorax?
Carapace and walking legs
How many major body regions do insects have?
3 body regions; head, thorax, abdomen
Why do the spiracles of the respiratory tract open to the outside of the body?
So air can pass through the trachea and then gas exchange will occur.
___grasshopper a. Class Merostomata
___ centipede b. Class Arachnida
___horseshoe crab c. Class Chilopoda
___millipede d. Class Diplopoda
___scorpion e. Class Malacostraca
___crayfish f. Class insecta
Arthopods have a/ an ______circulatory system and a/an_____ digestive system
a small piece of calcified material forming part of the skeleton of an invertebrate animal such as an echinoderm.
Which makes echinoderms, endoskeleton.
Class Asteroidea (Echinodermata)
Typically have 5 arms which merge with a central disc
Mouth is located in the center of oral surface which is directed downward
Water Vascular System; order of water flowing through sea star
Other projections on the body wall include tiny jaw-like appendages
Class Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata)
Typically have five arms which they use to locomote
Tend to be secretive and often nocturnal
Arms seem brittle or fragile, but regeneration is more pronounced in this class.
Class Echinoidea (Echinodermata)
(sea urchins, sand dollars)
Body is enclosed in a shell or test
Body surface is usually covered with moveable spines
Ambulacral plates bearing tube feet that radiate out toward the aboral surface
Use podia and spines during locomotion
The spines are moveable and articulate with the with the calcareous ossicles
a conical structure of calcareous plates and muscles supporting the rasping teeth of a sea urchin.
Class Holothuroidea (Echinodermata)
Oral-aboral axis is greatly extended
Endoskeleton is reduced to a few ossicles scattered over the surface of the animal making them rather soft bodied
Some species crawl along the substrate using podia; others have peristaltic locomotion via muscle contractions
(sea lilies, feather stars)
Aboral surface is attached to the substrate by means of a bendable stalk
The portion of the crinoid body attached to the stalk is called the crown; bears a number of arms
Along the length of the arms are branches called pinnules
Given that modern echinoderms and chordates look nothing alike, what factors have led zoologist to propose a close evolutionary relationship between these who phylas?
They are both deuterostomes;
1.their mouth develop from the second embryonic opening,
2 they exhibit indeterminate development, and
3 embryonic cells divide by radial cleavage
___ asterias a. Class Crinoidea
___ sea lilies, feather stars b.Class Ophiuroidea
___ sea cucumbers c. Class Echinoidea
___ brittle stars d. Class Asteroidea
___ soft cylindrical body with leathery skin e. Class Holothuroidea
___body contains stalk; moith and anus on oral surface
___ body plates fused into solid test with long, movable spines
Five major characteristics of Chordata
Dorsal tubular nerve cord
Endostyle or thyroid gland
Class Chondrichthyes (chordata)
sharks, rays, skates
Class Osteichthyes (chordata)
bony fish (or Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii)
Class Amphibia (chordata)
frogs, toads, salamanders
Class Reptilia (chordata)
snakes, lizards, turtles, crocodilians
a gas-filled sac present in the body of many bony fishes, used to maintain and control buoyancy.
What is the function of the lateral lines along the fish's body?
a visible line along the side of a fish consisting of a series of sense organs that detect pressure andvibration.
shorter for carnivores and longer for herbivores
Does the vertebral column extend all the way to the caudal fin?
__ gills a.reproductive
__ liver b. excretory
__pyloric ceca c. digestive
__kidney d. respiratory
__gonad e. circulatory
their body temperature depends on the environment and restricts their range.
how many chambers does a frog heart have? id the circulatory system open or closed?
It had a 3 chamber heart and it has a closed circulatory system
The Beaded lizard and Gila monster
are the only venomous lizards in the world, and both occur in North America.
what anatomical modification does the snake skull have that permits swallowing large prey?
The two mandibles of the lower jaw are not fused together at the front of the mouth which allow them to spread apart.
___turtles a. synapsid
___birds b. diapsid
___mammals c. anapsid