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Statistics
is the science of collecting, processing, analyzing and interpreting data in such a way that conclusions can be drawn in an objective manner.

Biostatistics
pertains to statistics as applied to the biological and health sciences

Descriptive statistics
number of students receiveing an A
State & Federal statistics (pregnancy rate among women under the age of 16, number of cases of AIDS reported yearly, unemployment rate)
Proportion of study subjects receiving a new experimental drug who are cured of their disease

Inferential Statistics
Determining the factors that increase the risk of an individual developing coronary heart disease
Establishing whether a laparoscopic surgical procedure results in a shorter recovery period than a more invasive, traditional alternative
compare the effectiveness of two drugs that are often prescribed to patients who suffer from arthritis
asessing the reduction of child mortality in MVA resulting from the use of seat belts.

Probability
the science of characterizing the behavior of random phenomena

population
Parameter
the complete set of objects of interest

Sample
subset of a population

Categorical
Nominal or ordinal

Numerical
Discrete or continuous

Nominal
values are unordered categories or classes for which there is not a natural ordering
ex: political affiliation, gender, marital status

Ordinal
There is a natural ordering among the category values
ex: injury severity scale, activity level, severity of disease

Discrete
data values are counts. Both order and magnitude are important. They tell how many were observed
ex: # of live births, # of deaths attributed to a given cause, # of relapses of a disease observed in a given time frame
whole #

Continuous
Data that can take on any decimal value within a given range
ex: height or weight, distance, time, temperature

Tables
are a common method of displaying data, especially for categorical or discrete data

absolute frequency
number of units in a given category

Relative Frequency
proportion of the total count

Cumulative Relative Frequency
percentage of the total count (total number of observations) that have a value less than or equal to the upper limit of the interval

Two ways to summarize a distribution

Bar Charts
very common and are used to show the frequency/relative frequency observed in differnet (nominal or ordinal) categories

Histogram
is a graphical representation of a frequency or relative frequency distribution

Box Plots
a graphical representation of the quartiles of a data set. They also indicate unusual data values. Atypical values in a data set are outliers.

Symmetric
the left side is a mirror image of the right side

Skewed Left
if the majority of the area of the box plot is on the right, and the area gradually trails off on the left.

Skewed Right
If the majority of the area of the box is on the left and the area gradually trails off to the right.

