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is the science of collecting, processing, analyzing and interpreting data in such a way that conclusions can be drawn in an objective manner.
pertains to statistics as applied to the biological and health sciences
number of students receiveing an A
State & Federal statistics (pregnancy rate among women under the age of 16, number of cases of AIDS reported yearly, unemployment rate)
Proportion of study subjects receiving a new experimental drug who are cured of their disease
Determining the factors that increase the risk of an individual developing coronary heart disease
Establishing whether a laparoscopic surgical procedure results in a shorter recovery period than a more invasive, traditional alternative
compare the effectiveness of two drugs that are often prescribed to patients who suffer from arthritis
asessing the reduction of child mortality in MVA resulting from the use of seat belts.
the science of characterizing the behavior of random phenomena
the complete set of objects of interest
subset of a population
Nominal or ordinal
Discrete or continuous
values are unordered categories or classes for which there is not a natural ordering
ex: political affiliation, gender, marital status
There is a natural ordering among the category values
ex: injury severity scale, activity level, severity of disease
data values are counts. Both order and magnitude are important. They tell how many were observed
ex: # of live births, # of deaths attributed to a given cause, # of relapses of a disease observed in a given time frame
Data that can take on any decimal value within a given range
ex: height or weight, distance, time, temperature
are a common method of displaying data, especially for categorical or discrete data
number of units in a given category
proportion of the total count
Cumulative Relative Frequency
percentage of the total count (total number of observations) that have a value less than or equal to the upper limit of the interval
Two ways to summarize a distribution
very common and are used to show the frequency/relative frequency observed in differnet (nominal or ordinal) categories
is a graphical representation of a frequency or relative frequency distribution
a graphical representation of the quartiles of a data set. They also indicate unusual data values. Atypical values in a data set are outliers.
the left side is a mirror image of the right side
if the majority of the area of the box plot is on the right, and the area gradually trails off on the left.
If the majority of the area of the box is on the left and the area gradually trails off to the right.