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2014-09-04 18:41:48

Lecture 1, 1a
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  1. Statistics
    is the science of collecting, processing, analyzing and interpreting data in such a way that conclusions can be drawn in an objective manner.
  2. Biostatistics
    pertains to statistics as applied to the biological and health sciences
  3. Descriptive statistics
    number of students receiveing an A

    State & Federal statistics (pregnancy rate among women under the age of 16, number of cases of AIDS reported yearly, unemployment rate)

    Proportion of study subjects receiving a new experimental drug who are cured of their disease
  4. Inferential Statistics
    Determining the factors that increase the risk of an individual developing coronary heart disease

    Establishing whether a laparoscopic surgical procedure results in a shorter recovery period than a more invasive, traditional alternative

    compare the effectiveness of two drugs that are often prescribed to patients who suffer from arthritis

    asessing the reduction of child mortality in MVA resulting from the use of seat belts.
  5. Probability
    the science of characterizing the behavior of random phenomena
  6. population

    the complete set of objects of interest
  7. Sample
    subset of a population
  8. Categorical
    Nominal or ordinal
  9. Numerical
    Discrete or continuous
  10. Nominal
    values are unordered categories or classes for which there is not a natural ordering

    ex: political affiliation, gender, marital status
  11. Ordinal
    There is a natural ordering among the category values

    ex: injury severity scale, activity level, severity of disease
  12. Discrete
    data values are counts. Both order and magnitude are important. They tell how many were observed

    ex: # of live births, # of deaths attributed to a given cause, # of relapses of a disease observed in a given time frame

    whole #
  13. Continuous
    Data that can take on any decimal value within a given range

    ex: height or weight, distance, time, temperature
  14. Tables
    are a common method of displaying data, especially for categorical or discrete data
  15. absolute frequency
    number of units in a given category
  16. Relative Frequency
    proportion of the total count
  17. Cumulative Relative Frequency
    percentage of the total count (total number of observations) that have a value less than or equal to the upper limit of the interval
  18. Two ways to summarize a distribution
    • Graphical
    • Arithmetic
  19. Bar Charts
    very common and are used to show the frequency/relative frequency observed in differnet (nominal or ordinal) categories
  20. Histogram
    is a graphical representation of a frequency or relative frequency distribution
  21. Box Plots
    a graphical representation of the quartiles of a data set. They also indicate unusual data values. Atypical values in a data set are outliers.
  22. Symmetric
    the left side is a mirror image of the right side
  23. Skewed Left
    if the majority of the area of the box plot is on the right, and the area gradually trails off on the left.
  24. Skewed Right
    If the majority of the area of the box is on the left and the area gradually trails off to the right.