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are the objects described by a set of data. Individuals may be people, but they may also be animals or things
is any characteristic of an individual. It can take different values for difference individuals
places an individual into one of several groups or categories
takes numerical values for which arithmetic operations such as adding and averaging make sense
of a variable tells us what values the variable takes and how often it takes these values
gap, shape, outliers, centre, spread
- displays distribution of one quantitative variable
- bar widths must be equal
- do not pick too many or too few intervals
- the pth percentile of a distribution is the value such that 'p' percent of the observations fall "at or below" it.
- Ex.) if you receive a standardized test in the 70th percentile that 70%of the people were the same or below you
a relative cumulative frequency graph