Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide.txt

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Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide.txt
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Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
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  1. Definition of Psychoanalysis
    Type of psychotherapy in which emphasized the role of unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and personality.
  2. Who founded Psychoanalysis?
    Sigmund Freud
  3. The study of observable behavior.
    Behaviorism
  4. What kind of psychology John Watson studied?
    Behaviorism
  5. Definition of Humanistic
    School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each persons unique potential for psychological growth and self direction.
  6. Who discovered Humanistic Psychology?
    Carl Rogers
  7. Eight major perspectives
    • •The Positive Psychology Perspective
    • •The Biological Perspective
    • •The Humanistic Perspective
    • •The Cognitive Perspective
    • •The Behavioral Perspective
    • •The Psychodynamic Perspective
    • •The Evolutionary Perspective
    • •The Cross-Cultural Perspective
  8. Major points of The Positive Psychology Perspective
    A field of psychological research and theory focusing on the study positive emotions, positive traits, and personal happiness.
  9. Major Points of The Biological Perspective
    It emphasizes studying the physical bases of human behavior including the nervous system, immune system, and genetics.
  10. A perspective that focuses on the motivation of people to grow psychologically, the influence of interpersonal relationships.
    The Humanistic Perspective
  11. Perspective on thinking, language, and intelligence.
    The Cognitive Perspective
  12. The Behavioral Perspective
    How behavior is acquired or modified by environmental cause.
  13. A perspective that emphasize the importance of unconscious influences, early life experiences, and interpersonal relationsips
    The Psychodynamic Perspective
  14. The Evolutionary Perspective
    A perspective that focuses on the adaption of species so they could survive.
  15. The Cross-Cultural Perspective
    How cultural factors influence patterns of behavior.
  16. Emphasizes the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group.
    Individualistic Culture
  17. Collectivistic Culture
    Emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual.
  18. 4 Goals of Psychology
    • •Describe
    • •Explain
    • •Predict
    • •Control or Influence
  19. Correlation
    Examines how strongly two variables are related to or associated with each other.
  20. Placebo
    A fake substance, treatment, or procedure that has no known direct effects.
  21. Types of neurons
    • •Sensory Neurons
    • •Motor Neurons
    • •Interneurons
  22. Communicating information from the environment to the central nervous system
    Sensory Neurons
  23. Motor Neurons
    Communicate information from the central nervous system to the muscles.
  24. Interneurons
    Communicate information from one neuron to another.
  25. Automatic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord.
    Spinal Reflexes
  26. subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that communicates sensory information to the central nervous system and carries motor messages from the central nervous system to the muscles
    Somatic nervous system
  27. Autonomic nervous system
    Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions.
  28. Sympathetic nervous system
    Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceive emergencies or threats.
  29. Branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves the body's physical resources
    Parasympathetic nervous system
  30. Definition of functional plasticity
    The brains ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas.
  31. The brains ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental influences.
    Structural Plasticity
  32. What makes up the Limbic system?
    • The Hippocampus
    • The Thalamus
    • The Hypothalamus
    • The Amygdala
  33. What does the hippocampus do?
    It's involved in learning and forming new memories.
  34. What does the thalamus do?
    Involves regulating levels of awareness, attention,motivation, and emotional aspects of sensation.
  35. What does the hypothalamus do?
    Regulates behaviors such as eating, drinking, fear, and aggression.
  36. What does the Amydala do?
    Involves a variety emotional responses.
  37. The notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primary on one side of the brain.
    Lateralization of Functions
  38. The process of detecting a physical stimulus, such as light, sound, heat, or pressure.
    Sensation
  39. The process of intergrating, organizing, and interpreting sensations.
    Perception
  40. The smallest possible strength of a stimulus that can be detected half the time.
    Absolute Threshold.
  41. The smallest possible difference between two stimuli that can be detected half the time; also called just noticeable difference.
    Difference Threshold
  42. Subliminal Perception
    The detection of stimuli that are below the threshold of conscious awareness; non conscious perception.
  43. Taste Categories
    • Sweet
    • Sour
    • Bitter
    • Salty
  44. Gate-Control theory of pain
    The theory that pain is a product of both physiological and physiological factors that cause spinal gates to open and relay patterns of intense stimulation to the brain, which perceives them as pain.
  45. Example of Bottom-up processing
    Trying to figure out a jigsaw puzzle piece by piece without knowing what the final picture would be.
  46. Examples of a Gesalt
    Us perceiving a picture as a whole than isolated pieces.

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