Psychology Chapter 1

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Psychology Chapter 1
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2014-09-05 11:49:03
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Psychology Chapter 1
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  1. the discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment.
    Psychology
  2. Relying on evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, or measurement
    Empirical Evidence
  3. The ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgements on the basis of well supported reasons rather than emotion and anecdote
    Critical Thinking
  4. Phrenology is greek for...
    "Study of the mind"
  5. -A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud
    -Emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
    Psychoanalysis
  6. Theories that explain behavior and personality it terms of unconscious energy dynamics within an individual
    Psychodynamic Theories
  7. A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior
    Sociocultural Perspective
  8. Psychological approach that focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings and thoughts
    Biological Perspective
  9. This perspective involves:
    -Hormones
    -Brain Chemistry
    -Heredity
    -Evolutionary Influences
    Biological Perspective
  10. Psychological approach that is concerned with how the environment and experience affect a person's or non human animal's actions
    Learning Perspective
  11. This perspective involves:
    -Behaviorism
    -Social Cognitive Learning Theories
    Learning Perspective
  12. Psychological approach that emphasizes what goes on in peoples heads and their thought processes
    Cognitive Perspective
  13. This perspective involves:
    -Social psychology or the study of rules, roles, groups and relationships
    -cultural psychology
    Sociocultural Perspective
  14. Psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural forces outside the individual
    Sociocultural Perspective
  15. Psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy
    Psychodynamic Perspective
  16. This perspective involves:
    -Unconscious thoughts, desires conflicts
    Psychodynamic Perspective
  17. Psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding of human behavior
    Humanist Psychology
  18. This perspective involves:
    -Rejected behaviorism and psychoanalysis
    -emphasized creativity and achieving potential
    Humanist Psychology
  19. Psychological approach analyzing the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes
    Feminist Psychology
  20. This perspective involves:
    -recognized years of male bias in data collection and psychotherapy
    -questions the use of research in justifying women's lower status or elevating women's status
    Feminist Psychology
  21. Research in areas of basic or applied psychology
    Examples:
    -Educational psychologists
    -Developmental psychologists
    -Industrial/organizational psychologists
    Academic/Research Psychologists
  22. These psychologists help people deal with problems associated with everyday life
    Counseling psychologists
  23. These psychologists work with parents, students, and teachers to enhance student performance
    School Psychologists
  24. These psychologists diagnose and study mental or emotional problems
    Clinical Psychologists
  25. Clinical psychologists are not...
    • 1. Psychotherapists
    • 2. Psychoanalysts
    • 3. Psychiatrists
  26. medical doctors who diagnose and treat mental disorders
    Psychiatrists
  27. A group of participants that accurately represents the larger population that the researcher is interested in
    Representative Sample
  28. A sample of people who happen to be available
    Convenience sample/ random assignment
  29. Methods that yield descriptions of behavior, but not necessarily casual explanations
    Descriptive Methods
  30. Examples of this method include:
    -Case studies
    -Observational studies
    -Psychological Tests
    -Surveys
    Descriptive Methods
  31. A detailed description of a particular person being studied or treated
    (most commonly used by researchers)
    Case Studies
  32. Researchers carefully and systematically observe and record behavior without interfering
    Observational Studies
  33. Purpose is to observe how people or animals behave in their natural environments
    Naturalistic Observational Study
  34. Purpose is to observe how people or animals behave in a more controlled setting
    Laboratory Observational Study
  35. Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values
    (These can be objective or projective)
    Psychological Tests
  36. Characteristics of a good Psychological Test are:
    • 1. Standardization
    • 2. Reliability
    • 3. Validity
  37. Measures what intends
    Validity
  38. yields consistent results
    Reliablity
  39. In test construction, established standards of performance
    Norms
  40. The test broadly represents the trait in question
    Content validity
  41. The test predicts other measures of the trait in question
    Criterion Validity
  42. Questionares and interviews that ask people about experiences, attitudes, or opinions
    Surveys
  43. Surveys require a ____________ sample
    Representative
  44. volunteers who participate may differ from those who did not volunteer
    volunteer bias
  45. A descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between the two phenomena
    Correlational Study
  46. A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
    Correlation
  47. An association between increases in on variable and increases in another, or decreases in one variable and decreases in the other
    Positive correlation
  48. an association between increases in one variable and decreases in another
    negative correlations
  49. A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another
    Experiment
  50. variable the experimenter manipulates
    independent variable
  51. Variable that are affected by the independent variable; what is measured
    Dependent Variable
  52. a comparison condition in which subjects are not exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition
    Control condition
  53. an inactive substance or fake treatment
    placebo
  54. statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data
    Descriptive Statistics
  55. They receive no treatment
    Control Group
  56. subjects of different ages are compared at a single time
    Cross-sectional studies
  57. subjects are periodically assessed over a period of time
    Longitudinal studies
  58. Only time you can say something caused you to do something
    experiment
  59. experimental group gets the _________ variable
    independent
  60. events that effect a generation
    cohort effect
  61. believed that his patients symptoms had mental, not physical cases
    sigmund freud (psychoanalysis)
  62. Four perspectives of psychological science:
    • 1. biological
    • 2. Learning
    • 3. Cognitive
    • 4. Sociocultural
  63. emphasized the function or purpose of behavior, as opposed to analysis and description
    Functionalism (William James)
  64. These people ask how and why and believed the brain and mind are constantly changing
    Functionalists
  65. hoped to analyze sensations, images, and feelings
    structuralists
  66. discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be "read" from bumps on the skull
    Phrenology
  67. observed that people do not become angry, sad, or anxious because of actual events, but because of their explanations of those events
    Stoic Philosophers
  68. Founder of modern medicence
    Hippocrates
  69. argued that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience, and this notion continues to influence many psychologists today
    John Locke

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