Pathology of the Central Nervous System

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Author:
PTgroup
ID:
282177
Filename:
Pathology of the Central Nervous System
Updated:
2014-09-07 12:28:49
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pathology
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Description:
CNS pathology (ppt during lec)
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  1. Supporting cells
    • Astrocytes
    • Glial cells
    • Ependymal cells
    • Schwann cells
  2. Supporting cell producing CSF
    Ependymal cells
  3. Caused by blood-brain barrier disruption, and increased vascular permeablity
    Vasogenic cerbral edema
  4. Accumulation of excess CSF within the ventricular system
    Hydrocephalus
  5. Normal CSF volume
    120-150 mL
  6. Monro-Kellie Doctrine
    • Cranium has fixed volume
    • Three components (CSF, blood, brain) are equilibrated in terms of volume and pressure
    • Expansion in one will cause compression in another
    • If others cannot decrease anymore, intracranial pressure is increased
  7. Manifestations of Increased Intracranial Pressure
    • Vomiting
    • Decrease in sensorium
    • Severe headache
    • Anisocoria
    • Papilledema
    • Cushing's Triad
  8. Impingement of the brain against normal anatomical structures
    Herniation
  9. Cushing's Triad
    • Hypertension
    • Irregular breathing
    • Bradycardia
  10. Brain death signs
    • No consciousness
    • No spontaneous breathing
    • Absent brainstem reflexes
    • Flat electroencephalogram
  11. Caused by shock or systemic hypoxia, leading to a generalized loss of supply to the whole brain
    Global Ischemia
  12. Risk factors for stroke
    • Diabetes Mellitus
    • Hypertension
    • Smoking
    • Hypercholesterolemia
    • Pro-thromboembolic states
    • Previous stroke
  13. Localized/focal infection (encapsulated focus of pus)
    Abscess
  14. Infection of brain parenchyma
    Encephalitis
  15. Most common primary brain spinal cord tumors in children
    • Medulloblastoma
    • Pilocytic glioblastoma
  16. Most common primary brain and spinal cord tumor in adults
    Glioblastoma multiforme
  17. Degenerative movement disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremors, and rigidity
    Parkinson disease
  18. Characterized by loss of lower motor neurons in spinal cord and brainstem and upper motor neurons. that project in corticospinal tracts
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  19. Neural tube defect wherein the brain did not form
    Anencephaly
  20. Incomplete separation of hemispheres
    Holoprosencephaly
  21. Arnold-Chiarri malformation symptoms
    • Small posterior fossa
    • Misshapen cerebellum, herniation of the vermis
  22. Cerebral palsy wherein the cerebellum is affected
    Ataxic type
  23. Cerebral palsy wherein basal ganglia is affected
    Choreoathetoid (hyperkinetic)
  24. What part is affected in spastic type cerebral palsy?
    Cortex
  25. Possible causes of cerebral palsy
    • Intraventricular hemorrhage
    • Perinatal asphyxia
    • Hyperbilirubinemia
  26. Demyelinating white matter disease of CNS
    Multiple sclerosis
  27. Demyelinating white matter disease of PNS
    Guillain Barre Syndrome
  28. "Bruising" of the brain/cord
    Contusion
  29. Injured part of brain is directly beneath point of head impact
    Coup injury
  30. Clinical syndrome of altered consciousness secondary to head injury
    Concussion
  31. Traction force causes widespread avulsion of axons
    Diffuse axonal injury
  32. Injured part of brain is diametrically opposite point of head impact
    Contrecoup
  33. Due to bleeding as a result of trauma
    Traumatic vascular injury
  34. Vitamin B1 deficiency, common in alcoholics
    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
  35. Dismodulation of neurotransmitter in schizophrenia
    Increased dopamine
  36. Neurotransmitter dismodulation in anxiety
    Increased noripeniphrine
  37. Dismodulation of nerotransmitter in depression
    Decreased serotonin
  38. Causes of seizures
    • High frequency bursts of action potential
    • Hypersynchronization of neuronal population
  39. Basic localization inquiries
    • Central or peripheral nervous system? Or both?
    • Brain or spinal cord level? Or both?
    • Generalized, diffuse, or focal?
  40. Localize: Involuntary movements since infancy
    • Basal ganglia
    • Cerebral palsy
  41. Localize: Gradually progressive right sided weakness with mild aphasia
    • Left cortex
    • Reason may be tumor
  42. Localize: Suddenly bilateral leg paralysis and anesthesia
    • Spinal cord
    • Trauma
  43. Localize: Left facial weakness and right body weakness
    • Localized: lesion in the brainstem
    • Affected the attachment of cranial nerve of left side

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