Lecture 6 -Integration of Metabolism

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glparker86
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Lecture 6 -Integration of Metabolism
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2014-09-07 23:20:50
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Biochem
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Biochem
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  1. What nutrients are considered inorganic ?
    Water and Minerals
  2. How many Calories does each one
    possess ? How many Kilojules are there present in one Kcal/Cal?

    Carbohydrate :
    Protein :
    Fat :
    Alcohol:
    • Carbohydrate : 4 
    • Protein : 4
    • Fat : 9
    • Alcohol : 7

    1 Kcal/Cal = 4.2
  3. What Vitamins are water soluble and fat soluble ?
    • Water Soluble : B - 1,2,3,5,6,7,9,12 and C 
    • Fat Soluble : A,D,E, K
  4. What are the Major minerals ? 
    (Hint : Use Acronym )
    Ca, K , P, Na, Cl, Mg, and S

    • Captain 
    • Kathrine 
    • Parker 
    • Navigates 
    • Clear
    • Moving
    • Surf
  5. What is the conversion factor for kg to lbs ?

    To maintain weight what the amount of Kcal/kg/day is needed for a sedentary adult , moderately active adult , and very active adult ?
    kg = 2.2 lbs 

    • –Sedentary adults: 30 kcal/kg/day
    • –Moderately active: 35 kcal/kg/day
    • –Very active: 40 kcal/kg/day
  6. what are the acceptable percentage range for nutrients ?

    Carbohydrates : 
    Protein :
    Fat :
    • Carbohydrates–45-65% 
    • Fat –20-35% 
    • Protein–10-35%
  7. Place these in order for most prevalent in American society to least prevalent ?

    Heart disease , Cancer , Strokes ,
    Diabetes mellitus
    • Heart Disease 
    • Cancer
    • Stroke
    • Diabetes Mellitus
  8. How is ingredients labeled on the nutrition facts in terms of weight ?
    The highest in weight goes first
  9. How is does vitamin dose amount and effects show on a graph ?
  10. What water soluble vitamin is not of the B complex ?
    Vitamin C
  11. What vitamins of the B-complex are energy releasing ?
    • B1 -Thiamine
    • B2 -Riboflavin
    • B3- Niacin
    • B5-Pantothenic acid
    • B7 - Biotin
  12. What vitamins of the B-complex hematopoteic ?
    • B9 -Folic acid 
    • B12- Cobalamin
  13. What B-complex is considered in the other category ?
    B6 -Pyridoxine,pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine
  14. Give the name of the following B-vitamin ?
    B1
    B1- Thiamine
  15. Give the name of the following B-vitamin ?
    B2
    B2-Riboflavin
  16. Give the name of the following B-vitamin ?
    B3
    B3 -Niacin
  17. Give the name of the following B-vitamin ?
    B5
    B5-Pantothenic acid
  18. Give the name of the following B-vitamin ?
    B6
    B6-Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine
  19. Give the name of the following B-vitamin ?
    B7
    B7- Biotin
  20. Give the name of the following B-vitamin ?
    B9
    B9 - Folic acid
  21. Give the name of the following B-vitamin ?
    B12
    B12 - Cobalamin
  22. Give the name of the following Vitamin ?
    Vitamin C
    Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid
  23. Give the name of the following Vitamin ?
    Vitamin A
    Vitamin A - Retinol , B-carotenes
  24. Give the name of the following Vitamin ?
    Vitamin D
    Vitamin D - calciferol
  25. Give the name of the following Vitamin ?
    Vitamin E
    Vitamin E - Tocopherols
  26. Give the name of the following Vitamin ?
    Vitamin K
    Vitamin K - Phylloquinone, Menaquinone
  27. What vitamins are easily destroyed by heat ?
    B1 , B6 , B9 , Vitamin C
  28. What vitamins are easily destroyed by UV ?
    B2
  29. What vitamin is easily destroyed by food processing ?
    B5
  30. What vitamins are easily destroyed by heat and oxygen ?
    • Vitamin C
    • B9
  31. What vitamin is easily destroyed by the microwaves ?
    B12
  32. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause Beriberi or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome ?
    B1 - Thiamine
  33. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause ?
    -No major disease
    -Dermatitis
    -Cheilosis (fissuring at the corners of the mouth)
    -Glossitis (tongue appearing smooth and purplish)
    B2-Riboflavin
  34. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause ?

    Pellagra: disease of the skin, GI tract and CNS

    Dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia (3Ds); and
    if untreated death
    B3-Niacin
  35. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause ?

    Deficiency:Not well characterized in humans
    B5 - Pantothenic acid
  36. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause ?

    Scaly dermatitis, anemia, depression, confusion,
    convulsions
    B6- Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine
  37. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause ?
    Deficiency:Rare
    B7: Biotin
  38. Whenever you see carboxylase what vitamin is associated with it ?
    B7: Biotin
  39. In fatty acid synthesis what does Acetyl-ACP and Malonyl-CoA go on to make ?
    Palmitate 

  40. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause ?

    -It is Probably the most
    common vitamin deficiency in the US           particularly among pregnant women
    and alcoholics

    -Anemia

    -Neural tube defects: Spina bifida and anencephaly
    B9: Folic Acid
  41. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause Deficiency Pernicious anemia ?
    B12 -cabalamin
  42. What factor does B12 require to be absorbed by the gut ? This causes ?
    Intrensic Factor

    The body can't absorb Vitamin B12 and then it causes pernicious anemia.
  43. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause Deficiency ? 
    Scurvy:
    -Sore and spongy gums
    -Loose teeth
    -Fragile blood vessels
    -Swollen joints
    -Anemia
    Vitamin C - Ascorbic Acid
  44. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause Deficiency ?

    -Night Blindness
    -Xerophthalmia – dry eyes, lack of tear production
    -Keratomalacia – softening of the cornea
    Vitamin A - Retinol / B-Carotenes
  45. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause Deficiency ?

    -Rickets in children
    -Inadequate calcification resulting in misshapen bones
    (bowing of leg)
    -Osteomalacia in adults
    -Poor bone mineralization
    -Soft, flexible, brittle and deformed bones
    -Osteoporosis in adults
    -Loss of calcium
    -Results in fractures
    Vitamin D - Calciferol
  46. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause Deficiency 

    Deficiency:
    Red blood cell breakage
    Nerve damage
    Vitmain E - Tocopherols
  47. A deficiency in what vitamin will cause Deficiency 

    Deficiency
    -Hemorrhaging
    Vitamin K - Phylloquinone, Menaquinone
  48. A deficiency in sodium will cause ?
    Muscle cramps, mental apathy and loss of appetite
  49. A deficiency in calcium will cause ?
    • Stunted growth in children
    • Bone loss (osteoporosis) in adults
  50. A deficiency of phosphorous will cause ?
    • Muscular weakness, bone pain
    • Important in DNA and RNA
  51. Is fluoride better used internally or topically ?
    Topically
  52. A deficiency in Iron causes ?
    Anemia
  53. A deficiency in Zn , Cr ,Mn ?
    • and  are essential for the management of sugar
    • metabolism
  54. A deficiency in Iodine can cause ?
    –Goiter may arise from lack of Iodine
  55. What is the BMI equation ?

    What is the BMI of a 154 pound individual with
    a height of 6 feet?
    BMI = weight(kg) / height (m)2

    BMI = (70kg) / (1.83 m)2

    • BMI = 21
  56. What are the ranges of BMI for the follwoing ?
    BMI:
    Underweight- 
    Healthy weight- 
    Overweight-
    Obesity -
    Extreme Obesity-
    • BMI :
    • Underweight <18.5
    • Healthy weight 18.5 -24.9
    • Overweight 25-29.9
    • Obesity 30-39.9
    • Extreme Obesity >40
  57. Two important information for disease risk missing from weight only are ?
    • -How much of the weight is fat
    • -Where the fat is located
  58. What are some facts about visceral fat ?
    • -Stored around the organs of the abdomen
    • Upper body fat / Central Obesity
    • -Associated with increased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and some types of cancer
    • -Most common in men and to a lesser extent postmenopausalwomen
  59. What are some facts about subcutaneous fat ?
    • -Stored around hips and thighs
    • -Lower body fat
    • -Mostly common in women during reproductive years
    • -Seems relatively harmless
  60. What is Leptin ?
    • -Leptin
    • from adipose tissue
    • promotes negative energy balance
    • -Suppressing appetite
    • -Increasing energy expenditure
  61. What is the difference between Anorexia nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , and Binge eating disorder ? Which is important to dentist ?
    Bulimia Nervosa

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