Nervous System Lesions

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PTgroup
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282200
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Nervous System Lesions
Updated:
2014-09-06 09:01:40
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neuropathology
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  1. Signs of Nervous System Pathology
    • Movement disorders
    • Problems of somatic and special senses
    • Cognitive difficulties
    • Others:
    • Seizures
    • Headache
    • Impaired Consciousness
    • Psychiatric Symptoms
    • Autonomic and Endocrine Dysfunction
  2. Functions of the cortex
    • voluntary ideation of movement
    • Sensation and perception
    • cognition or higher cortical functions
  3. Sensorimotor deficits manifest on what side?
    CONTRALATERAL
  4. T/F: Cognitive deficits have no laterality
    T
  5. Lobe responsible for executive functions or regulation of behavior
    frontal lobe
  6. Lobe responsible for auditory processing and memory storage
    Temporal lobe
  7. Pertains to the ability of the brain to relearn given time and effort despite injury
    neuroplasticity
  8. Maintains and regulates muscle tone at rest and fine tunes voluntary movements
    Basal Ganglia
  9. Lesions on the basal ganglia will manifest on what side if unilateral?
    CONTRALATERAL
  10. T/F: Relearning is a key component of rehabilitation in basal ganglionic disorders
    F
  11. Functions of Cerebellum
    • Balance
    • Coordination
    • Motor planning
  12. Cerebellar lesions will manifest on what side?
    IPSILATERAL
  13. Differentiate: sensation and perception
    Sensation is mere stimuli; perception requires  cognitive processing
  14. Patterns of injury in the cortex will depend on:
    • hemisphere affected
    • lobe affected
    • Brodmann's area affected
    • part of homunculus affected
    • vascular territory affected
  15. function of occipital lobe
    visual processing
  16. Memory problems and receptive aphasia could be attributed to a lesion in the _______ lobe.
    temporal
  17. Agnosia, apraxia and expressive aphasia could be attributed to a lesion in the _______ lobe.
    parietal
  18. Lesion in occipital lobe will lead to
    cortical blindness
  19. Lesions of the basal ganglia will result in:
    • excess involuntary movement
    • muscle tone dysfunction such as constant fluctuation or rigidity
    • difficulty initiating and terminating movement
  20. T/F: Basal ganglia relies mainly on neurotransmitters rather than synapses.
    T
  21. Features of Parkinsonism
    • Bradykinesia
    • Rigidity
    • Akinesia
    • Resting tremors
    • Stooped posture
    • Festinating gait
  22. T/F: True coordination can be learned.
    F
  23. A lesion in the cerebellum could lead to the ff:
    • Ataxia
    • Dysmetria
    • Dysdiadochokinesia
    • Dyssynergia
    • Rebound phenomenon
  24. Overshooting of agonist and delayed action of antagonist muscle
    Rebound phenomenon
  25. Sensory relay center of CNS
    Thalamus
  26. Lesions in thalamus will result in derangement of sensation, usually causing _________.
    Neuropathic pain
  27. Pain due to damaged neurons
    Neuropathic pain
  28. Contains the nuclei for regulation of breathing, heart rate and contractility.
    Brainstem
  29. Lesions in the brainstem will manifest in the __________ for the face and __________ for the limbs
    IPSILATERAL; CONTRALATERAL
  30. Responsible for overall consciousness, arousal and sleep
    Ascending Reticular Activating System
  31. Severe lesion in the Ascending Reticular Activating System can result in __________
    decreased sensorium
  32. T/F: Nerve roots on the level of the spinal cord lesion will not be damaged.
    F
  33. Transient loss of all motor and sensory functions below level of the lesion due to acute trauma
    Spinal shock
  34. Lesions of peripheral nerve presents with:
    • denervation atrophy and severe weakness
    • hyporeflexia
    • sensory loss
  35. LMNL leads to what type of paralysis?
    Flaccid paralysis
  36. UMNL leads to what type of paralysis?
    Spastic paralysis
  37. LOCALIZE THE LESION.
    Gradual progressive right-sided weakness with mild aphasia
    Lesion in Left Cortex - TUMOR
  38. LOCALIZE THE LESION.
    Sudden bilateral leg paralysis and anaesthesia
    Traumatic spinal cord lesion
  39. LOCALIZE THE LESION.
    Headache -> decreased sensorium -> seizures-> death
    Generalized brain lesion -> hemorrhage -> meninges irritated -> increased ICP
  40. LOCALIZE THE LESION.
    Balance problems with dysmetria
    Lesion in cerebellum
  41. LOCALIZE THE LESION.
    Involuntary movements since infancy
    Basal ganglia lesion - Cerebral Palsy
  42. Neck rigidity and high grade fever with pneumonia
    • Meningitis from pneumonia
    • (Note that neck rigidity is a sign of meningitis)
  43. LOCALIZE THE LESION.
    Left facial weakness and right body weakness
    Left focal lesion in brainstem
  44. LOCALIZE THE LESION.
    Incontinence (loss of bladder control) due to sphincter paralysis
    Lesion in the lower area of spinal cord
  45. Athetoid movements -> dementia -> death over several years
    Huntington's disease
  46. T/F: Anatomic injury is NOT confined to only 1 level
    T
  47. Mainly a problem of speech; comprehension is intact
    Expressive aphasia
  48. Region of brain affected in receptive aphasia
    Wernicke's Area
  49. Region of brain affected in expressive aphasia
    Broca's area
  50. Agnosia and apraxia can be attributed to damage in what hemisphere of the brain?
    Right/non-dominant
  51. Motor planning deficit
    Apraxia

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