Vitamins and Supplements

The flashcards below were created by user Rory1000 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

    Apple cider vinegar is the natural product of fermenting crushed apples. Vinegar has been used as a health tonic for thousands of years for many different ailments. Several studies have found that vinegar -- including apple cider vinegar -- may lower blood sugar levels. This could have benefits for people with diabetes. Some types of vinegar have also been shown to make people feel fuller.
    Arginine, or L-arginine, is an amino acid that is made in the body. As a supplement, it seems to help with several conditions, from migraines to inflammation. Because it relaxes blood vessels, arginine might have cardiovascular benefits for some people.
  3. ACAI
    Acaí berries come from a palm tree in South America. Acaí berries seem to have very high levels of antioxidants -- comparable to cranberries, but higher than blueberries, strawberries, and other fruits.
    Alpha-Lipoic acid is an antioxidant that's in many foods, and it's made naturally in our bodies. We have strong evidence that alpha-lipoic acid supplements help with type 2 diabetes. Several studies have found that they can improve insulin resistance.
    The root and berry of the ashwagandha plant are a traditional Ayurvedic medicine in India.  Ashwagandha is used as a tonic (it is sometimes referred to as the “Indian ginseng”) to improve physical and mental health and to treat a number of specific conditions.
    Most of the cells in your body contain carnitine, which your liver and kidneys make. Carnitine helps your cells produce energy. Studies show improvements or slower declines in mental ability in people with Alzheimer's disease who took ALC. Also, improves mental function of diabetes, depression, alcoholism.
    Beta-carotene is a carotenoid, one of a group of plant pigments known to have antioxidant and other effects. This is a substance in plants that's quickly converted into vitamin A inside the body. Beta-carotene is often thought of as a form of vitamin A itself. Having normal levels of vitamin A is key for good vision, strong immunity, and general health.
    Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid that is produced naturally in the body. Beta-alanine aids in the production of carnosine. That's a compound that plays a role in muscle endurance in high-intensity exercise.
    The mineral calcium is well-known for its key role in bone health. Calcium also helps maintain heart rhythm, muscle function, and more. Because of its health benefits, calcium is one of the best-selling supplements in the U.S.
    Chondroitin is a substance that occurs naturally in the connective tissues of people and animals. As a supplement in higher doses than is found naturally, chondroitin is a popular treatment for osteoarthritis. As an osteoarthritis treatment, chondroitin is often used along with another supplement, glucosamine.
    Citicoline is a natural chemical in the body. It seems to play a role in brain health. It's available as a supplement in the U.S. In other parts of the world, Citicoline is sold as a drug. It's used to try and help sharpen thinking in people with blood flow problems in the brain.
  12. COENZYME Q10: CoQ10
    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a nutrient that occurs naturally in the body. CoQ10 is also in many foods we eat. CoQ10 acts as an antioxidant, which protects cells from damage and plays an important part in the metabolism.
    CLA is an essential fatty acid that's important for good health. We get small amounts of it from the food we eat. It's also an antioxidant that may have other health benefits. CLA may decrease the amount of body fat. It may help people feel fuller after eating.
    Creatine is formed from amino acids and plays a role in converting food into energy. We get some creatine from our diets, mostly from meat and fish, and our bodies make the rest naturally. There is some good evidence that creatine might help with sports that require sudden bursts of activity. It may also increase muscle mass in some people.
    Deer velvet is a traditional Chinese medicine treatment. It is made from immature deer antlers, which are covered in velvet-like hair. At this stage, the antlers are made of cartilage. The antlers also contain protein, fat, minerals, and other chemical compounds. promoted as a treatment for many symptoms and medical conditions, such as: Low libido, Erectile dysfunction, Arthritis pain, Liver damage, Anemia.
  16. DHEA
    DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) is a hormone that's naturally produced by the adrenal glands. Levels of DHEA naturally drop after age 30. A number of studies have found that DHEA supplements may help people with depression, obesity, lupus, and adrenal insufficiency. DHEA may also improve skin in older people and help treat osteoporosis, vaginal atrophy, erectile dysfunction, and some psychological conditions.
  17. FIBER
    Fiber is the general name for certain carbohydrates -- usually parts of vegetables, plants, and grains -- that the body can't fully digest. There are two main types of fiber. They are soluble fiber (which dissolves in water) and insoluble fiber (which does not). Combined, they're called total fiber. A number of studies have found that a high intake of total fiber, from foods and supplements, lowers the risk of heart disease.
    Glucosamine is a natural chemical compound found in the body. As a supplement, glucosamine is most often used to try to ease the joint pain caused by arthritis. Glucosamine helps keep the cartilage in joints healthy.
    Green coffee beans are raw, unroasted coffee beans. The roasting process seems to destroy some of the healthy, natural chemicals in the beans. Research shows green coffee may help with weight loss. Green coffee may act by lowering blood sugar and blocking fat buildup.
  20. IRON
    Iron is a mineral that's necessary for life. Iron plays a key role in the making of red blood cells, which carry oxygen. You can get iron from food and from supplements. If you don't have enough iron, you may develop anemia, a low level of red blood cells. Iron supplements are most often used for certain types of anemia. Anemia can cause fatigue and other symptoms.
    Krill oil comes from krill, tiny shrimp-like creatures that live in very cold ocean waters. Krill oil contains EPA and DHA, the same omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil, although usually in smaller amounts. Krill oil might be better absorbed in the body than fish oil. One study of krill oil found that it was more effective than fish oil in improving cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and blood glucose. Krill oil seems to ease menstrual cramps. One study found that women who took it needed fewer painkillers.
    L-citrulline is a substance called a non-essential amino acid. Your kidneys change L-citrulline into another amino acid called L-arginine and a chemical called nitric oxide. L-citrulline boosts nitric oxide production in the body. Nitric oxide helps your arteries relax and work better, which improves blood flow throughout your body. This can be helpful for treating or preventing many diseases.
    L-tryptophan is an essential amino acid that helps the body make proteins and certain brain-signaling chemicals. Your body changes L-tryptophan into a brain chemical called serotonin. Serotonin helps control your mood and sleep.
    Magnesium is a mineral that's crucial to the body's function. Magnesium helps keep blood pressure normal, bones strong, and the heart rhythm steady. Adults who consume less than the recommended amount of magnesium are more likely to have elevated inflammation markers.
    Milk thistle is a flowering herb from the Mediterranean. People have traditionally used milk thistle for problems with the liver and gallbladder. It may have protective effects on the liver, preventing damage.
    Having enough niacin, or vitamin B3, in the body is important for general good health. As a treatment, higher amounts of niacin can improve cholesterol levels and lower cardiovascular risks. Several studies have shown that it can boost levels of good HDL cholesterol and lower triglycerides as well or better than some prescription drugs.
    Potassium is a mineral that's crucial for life. Potassium is necessary for the heart, kidneys, and other organs to work normally. Most people who eat a healthy diet should get enough potassium naturally. However, many Americans don't eat a healthy diet and may be deficient in potassium. Low potassium is associated with a risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, cancer, digestive disorders, and infertility.
    Probiotics is a general term for living microorganisms -- often called "friendly" bacteria -- that have health benefits in the body. These can be bacteria or yeast that are similar to organisms that are naturally found in the body, especially in the digestive tract. Most often used to promote healthy digestion. Probiotics work by balancing the levels of microorganisms in the intestines. They drive down the numbers of harmful bacteria. They also seem to boost the body's immune system.
    Progesterone is a hormone that's produced mainly by a woman's ovaries. Men's adrenal glands and testes also make progesterone. Over-the-counter progesterone cream has been marketed as a treatment for menopausal symptoms, including: Hot flashes, Memory loss, Fatigue, Tender breasts.
    For centuries, the flowering plant St. John's wort was used as a health remedy in Europe. Today, St. John's wort is best-known as a treatment for depression.
    Vitamin A is key for good vision, a healthy immune system, and cell growth. There are two types of vitamin A. Retinoid's -- that comes from animal products. Beta-carotene is among the second type of vitamin A, which comes from plants.
  32. VITAMIN B-12
    Vitamin B-12 plays a role in making DNA. Vitamin B-12 also helps keep nerve cells and red blood cells healthy. Low vitamin B-12 can cause fatigue, weakness, memory loss, and other problems with the nervous system.
    Vitamin C helps tissue and bone grow and repair themselves. Vitamin C is often used for the common cold.
    Vitamin D plays several key roles in your body. Most importantly, vitamin D helps your body absorb the minerals calcium and phosphorus from the food you eat, which is important for bone health. Vitamin D is attained from food but mostly from sun exposure.
    Vitamin E is key for strong immunity and healthy skin and eyes. Many people use vitamin E supplements in the hopes that the vitamin's antioxidant properties will prevent or treat disease.
    Vitamin K plays a key role in helping the blood clot, preventing excessive bleeding. Unlike many other vitamins, vitamin K is not typically used as a dietary supplement.
    Whey is a product of cheese-making -- it’s the watery part of milk that separates from the curds. Some people use whey as a source of protein or as a supplement for health conditions. Protein powders are popular with athletes, particularly those doing strength training. They provide a good source of nutrients and amino acids. Some people take whey protein because they are lactose intolerant or allergic to other protein sources, like eggs or soy. Several studies have found that whey protein, when combined with strength training, might increase strength, muscle size, and lean body mass.
  38. ZINC
    Zinc is a mineral that's important to the body in many ways. Zinc keeps the immune system strong, helps heal wounds, and supports normal growth. Zinc has become a popular treatment for the common cold.
    At a basic level, an antioxidant is a molecule that has the ability to combat free-radicals. Free radicals in your body can cause many harmful health problems and can cause you to age more quickly - think of damage from automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, alcohol, and saturated fats. Anti-oxidants help fight the free radicals in your body!
    Supports weight loss by acting as appetite suppressant, and a healthy metabolic rate.
    Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins which help build your cells, skin, muscle, and teeth. Out of 22 Amino Acids, 9 are essential to get from food because your body can not produce them. Eg. Chicken, Beef, Protein Powder.
    Branched-chain amino acids are essential nutrients. They are in proteins in food. Your muscles "burn" these amino acids for energy. The specific amino acids that make up the branched-chain amino acids are leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The term branched-chain simply refers to their chemical structure. Athletes may take oral supplements of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). They take them to try to help with recovery from workouts and enhance athletic performance. Studies suggest that BCAAs may prevent muscle breakdown during exercise.
    Coconut Oil increases metabolism, energy levels, and balances cholesterol levels.
    Betaine Anhydrous which is a dietary component found in protein and fat-containing foods that adds structural integrity to cell membranes. Supports immune function, protects DNA formation, and maintains intestinal function.
    Collagen is one of the most abundant proteins in the body and is necessary for the successful maintenance of healthy cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone and skin.
    D-Aspartic Acid (D-AA) is a non-essential amino acid. That means your body produces a functional amount of it internally. D-Aspartic Acid plays a role in metabolic support, and also supports increased testosterone levels.
    Carnosine is an amino acid found in high concentrations in the brain and muscle tissues, and is commonly used to support immune support and muscle vitality.
    An amino acid most pre-workout supplements contain to support blood flow, aids recovery, and helps with stress response. Agmatine modulates nitric oxide synthase, potentially to better workouts, performance, and recovery.
    Healthy fats can be divided up into three different categories, unsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, as well as essential fatty acids. Since your body cannot produce essential fatty acids (EFAs) on its own, you have to get EFAs from the foods you eat like salmon, flax seeds, or other cold water fish. Supplementing with EFAs is a convenient way to get extra omega-3 support for your overall health.
    Carbohydrates are one of the main three macro-nutrients along with proteins and fats that will form the base of your diet. Carbohydrates are the body's preferred energy source. By getting quality carbohydrate sources you'll experience: Steady energy levels, Solid recovery rates from your workouts, and Stable metabolism.
  51. FISH OIL
    Fish oil Supplements & Capsules are derived from the fat of a variety of oily fish. Fish contain a natural source of Omega 3 essential fatty acids (EFA), which is an important nutrient that provides healthy heart benefits, optimal brain health, optimizes breakdown of carbohydrates. Refrigerate to keep fresh.
    Garcinia Cambogia is derived from the dried rind of the garcinia cambogia fruit. Garcinia Cambogia has been used for centuries as a food condiment in Southeast Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. Garcinia Cambogia (Hydroxycitric Acid) is a popular ingredient in commercial weight-loss preparations and research suggests that Garcinia Cambogia is effective at triggering safe weight-loss. Some studies suggest that Garcinia Cambogia supports healthy serotonin levels to support a positive mood and may shift the fuel usage in the body from carbohydrates to fats. In athletes, Garcinia Cambogia supports fat burning and may improve athletic performance by increasing exercise endurance.
    An amino acid that's one of the best anti-catabolic ingredients around used for Muscle recovery. Each time you lift weight, a large amount of stress is placed on the body. Unless something is done to help your body recover during training, fatigue will always be there to ruin your training.  The body can lose up to 50% of its glutamine levels during training, and if your immune system or other parts of your body become glutamine-deficient, the muscles' glutamine stores are first to be robbed, creating the risk for catabolism.
    Glycogen is a multi-branched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body.
    The Hoodia Gordonii plant is a cactus-like plant that grows primarily in the desert regions of South Africa. Hoodia has long been used by indigenous populations of South Africa to help regulate their appetite and thirst during long hunting expeditions. Promotes weight loss as a suppressant.
    HGH, produced by the pituitary gland, spurs growth in children and adolescents. It also helps to regulate body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, sugar and fat metabolism, and possibly heart function. People use the hormone, along with other performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids, to build muscle and improve athletic performance.
    Of all the amino acids that you take in on a daily basis, L-Leucine may just be the most beneficial. Leucine is an essential branched chain amino acid, which means your body cannot make it and you have to get Leucine from your daily diet. Leucine can be found in foods like nuts, wheat pasta/bread, and brown rice and whey protein powder. L-Leucine is important for both general health as well as athletic performance. If you are trying to transform your body by burning fat and building strong, lean muscle, L-Leucine will make a great addition to your supplement stack.
    L-Methionine is an essential amino acid that can be found in food sources such as cheese, eggs, fish, meat, and poultry. L-Methionine is mostly known as a precursor to protein synthesis in the body, and is thought to have antioxidant properties. Besides those primary roles, it has been suggested that L-Methionine may also be involved in the synthesis of creatine and the production of SAMe.
    Aside from getting your fast-absorbing protein immediately after your workout, it's important to get a steady flow of amino acids and protein to those tired muscle tissues long after you leave the gym. Casein's time-released formula allows the amino acids and protein to absorb in your stomach slowly, providing hours of repair and maintenance.
  60. OMEGA-3 (EFA)
    This polyunsaturated fatty acid contains a carbon-carbon bond in the omega-3 position of its molecular structure. Alpha linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) belong to the omega-3 fatty acid group. By getting your omega-3 fatty acids through food or supplementation, you can support brain and cardiovascular health.
  61. OMEGA 6 & 9 (EFA's)
    If you're trying to eat the most well-balanced diet you can, it's vital that you don't leave out healthy fats. Getting enough healthy fats each day may help keep your body functioning at its optimal levels while supporting your organs, reproduction system and energy.
    The three main plant protein types include: Hemp protein - protein, all 10 essential amino acids, healthy fats, and fiber, Pea protein - lean, absorptive plant protein, Brown rice protein - comes packed with vitamins, amino acids, and minerals. If you're someone who doesn't want to use animal-based protein or is lactose intolerant, but still wants a high quality source of protein, plant protein is something you'll definitely want to consider. Whether using it for training, sports, or general health, plant protein is a great alternative for anyone looking to supplement their fitness goal.
    A quality protein powder is a necessity. Simply put, protein is the single most important thing you must consume daily to build new muscle tissue. Muscle wouldn't exist without it. While you can get your protein from food sources - and it's recommended that you do - protein powder is a great addition to ensure you get enough on a daily basis. Not to mention protein supplements are convenient and fast absorbing for before and after your workouts, so you can really take your results to the next level. Protein shakes also act as the perfect solution for when you get busy and need to get your protein in right away.
    Raspberry ketones are compounds that give red raspberries their unique flavor, but they also support the metabolism of fats. Raspberry ketones are also noted for their ability to encourage consistent and jitter-free energy. Raspberry ketones work well with weight loss products and energy enhancement products to promote energy and metabolism during exercise. If you're on a low-calorie diet, keep your engine fueled with a lean product designed to boost your burn.
  65. SAMe
    SAMe (s-adenosylmethionine) is a naturally occurring longevity nutrient that can be produced by the body or chemically manufactured, and SAMe tends to decline with age. Athletes especially may benefit from SAMe's because it supports neurotransmitter balance, liver and cardiovascular function, and joint health. SAMe may also neutralize estrogenic compounds and promote natural free testosterone levels to help with support skeletal musculature.
  66. VITAMIN B6
    Vitamin B6 is a natural, water soluble B vitamin and is involved in the metabolism of protein and carbohydrates in the body. Vitamin B6 rich foods include whole grains, liver, cereals, chicken, eggs, fish, meat, and sunflower seeds. Vitamin B6 helps produce insulin, and various neurotransmitters and enzymes in the body. By keeping up on your vitamin B6, you can support your immune system, nervous system, and maintain adequate energy levels to get through killer workouts and long work or school days.
    Testosterone is the male sex hormone in the body, and testosterone levels normally rise during puberty and steadily increase up until around the age of 30. Unfortunately, declining testosterone may impact your ability to build muscle, and you may not see the same kind of gains you saw when you were younger. By using natural testosterone support products on a regular basis you may support your body's normal hormone production. You may also see gains in strength as well.
    Pro-hormones are precursors to active hormones in the body.  They work by increasing your testosterone levels and increasing anabolism.
    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a gas that’s naturally produced in the body; it's used to communicate between cells. N.O. affects the release of hormones and adrenaline. It’s also said to speed growth and recovery time as well as increase blood flow, thus delivering more nutrients to muscles, helping them grow. Athletes take N.O. supplements because they make you workout harder and for longer.
    The term "thermogenics" refers to an increased production of heat in the body. Thermogenic supplements are designed to increase your metabolism (the rate at which you burn calories), suppress your appetite, and promote weight loss.
    One of the most common methods of supplementing for low stomach acid is using Betaine Hydrochloride (HCL). Betaine HCL increases the level of hydrochloric acid in the stomach necessary for proper digestion and assimilation of nutrients from food. Normal levels of hydrochloric acid are required for complete digestion of proteins and absorption of amino acids.  It’s also required for the extraction of vitamin B12 from our food.  Betaine HCL helps to restore the proper acid levels in the stomach and maintain healthy GI function.
    An anabolic steroid that is taken orally. The effects of the drug can be dramatic strength increases. The muscle mass can show marked improvement in a very short space of time. It is more potent than an equivalent quantity of testosterone which enables it to act more quickly. Moreover, the drug is popular because it does not increase the levels of fat in the body.
    Carbs don't necessarily contribute to weight gain. It's what your body does with them that matters. When you ingest carbohydrates, they can either load up your muscle and liver glycogen reserves, which are burned for energy (good!), or they can be stored as fat (bad!). The trick is to help direct carbs away from fat deposition and toward glycogen storage.
    If you're trying to get as lean as you can, you can add some edge to that physique with diuretics designed to take you from lean to cut. These products promote the excretion of excess water in your system so that you maintain that hard, vascular look that you're after. It would be a shame to let water cover up your hard work, so pick up a diuretic and go the extra mile.
    Every day you come into contact with a variety of free radicals in the environment that can bombard your health and wellness over time. That's why using one of our detoxification products can be a very fast and effective way to promote overall wellness. Filled with a wide variety of enzymes and antioxidants that go a long way towards enhancing long-term health, detoxification products contain the best ingredients for flushing the bad stuff out and making sure your body is functioning efficiently.
    Ephedra is an herb. Usually, the branches and tops are used to make medicine, but the root or whole plant can also be used. Ephedra is banned in the U.S. due to safety concerns. Ephedra is used for weight loss and obesity and to enhance athletic performance. Ephedra contains a chemical called ephedrine. Ephedrine stimulates the heart, the lungs, and the nervous system.
  77. ISO-100 PROTEIN
    The Fastest-Acting Protein, ISO-100® provides super-fast absorbing 100% whey protein isolate and has been hydrolyzed for even faster absorption and digestion. It delivers quick amino acid replenishment, perfect first thing in the morning to stop catabolism or after intense training to speed your recovery.
    If you're looking to make the most out of your workout session, you want to be focused, driven and energized when you hit the gym. Some of the benefits you may experience are: Mental alertness and focus, High energy levels, Circulating oxygen flow in the muscle tissue, Explosive muscular energy, vascular pumps.
Card Set:
Vitamins and Supplements
2014-09-06 18:42:41

A compilation of vitamins and supplements.
Show Answers: