Chapter 8

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  1. It is the place of union or junction between two or more bones, regardless of the degree of movement allowed by this unionn
  2. Joints are classified into ___ major groups according to the degree of movement they allow (____) and the type of material that holds the bones of the joint together (___)
    • three
    • function
    • structure
  3. these are joints or unions between bones that do not allow movement
  4. Examples of synarthroses
    • Suture
    • Syndesmosis
    • Gomphosis
  5. It is an articulation in which the bones are united by a thin layer of fibrous tissue
  6. They are joints in which the bones are connected by ligaments between the bones
  7. These are joints in which a conical process fits into a socket and is held in place by ligaments
  8. These are the joints in the skull
  9. The articulation of the radius and ulna is an example of this joint
  10. An example of this joint is a tooth, held in place by the periodontal ligament.
  11. Three major groups of joints
    • Synarthroses
    • Amphiarthroses
    • Diarthroses or Synovial Joints
  12. These are joints that only allow a slight movement
  13. The two examples of Amphiarthroses
    • Symphysis
    • Synchondrosis
  14. These are joints in which the bones are connected by a disk of fibrocartilage
  15. An example of this joint is the pubic symphysis where the two pelvic bones are joined.
  16. These are joints in which two bony surfaces are connected by hyaline cartilage
  17. Examples of these joints are the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone; and the connection of the ribs to the sternum
  18. These are freely moving joints or articulations
    Diarthroses or Synovial Joints
  19. They are always characterized by the presence of a cavity enclosed in a capsule
    Diarthroses or Synovial Joints
  20. It produces synovial fluid
    Synovial membrane
  21. It creates a smooth gliding surface  for opposing bones
    Synovial fluid
  22. it nourishes the articular cartilage
    Synovial fluid
  23. lubricates the joint
    Synovial fluid
  24. functions as a buffer between the vertebrae in the spinal column to minimize the forces of weight and shock from running, walking or jumping
  25. it is related to the laxity or looseness of the joint
    Range of Motion
  26. This is directly related to the structure of the capsule and howit is formed over the opposing bones
    Range of motion
  27. it has the greatest range of movement
    Shoulder joint
  28. They bear weight and allow movement
    Synovial joints
  29. Capsule is made of ___, ___, ___, ___, ___(?)
    • Ligaments
    • Tendons
    • Muscles
    • articular cartilage
    • Collagenous fibers
  30. It provides stability
    Diarthroses or Synovial Joint
  31. is the act of bending or decreasing the angle between bones
  32. Is the act of increasing the angle between bones.
  33. Increases the joint angle beyond anatomic position
  34. is moving the bones or limb away from the midline of the body
  35. It is moving the bone or limb toward the midline of the body
  36. It is the act of moving the bone around a central axis
  37. Is moving the bone in such a way that the end of the bone or a limb describes a circle in the air and the sides of the bone describe a cone in the air
  38. They refer to the movement of the forearm and the hand
    Supination and Pronation
  39. It is moving the bone so that the radius and the ulna are parallel
  40. It is moving the bones of the forearm so that the radius and ulna are not parallel
  41. They refer to the movements of the foot
    Eversion and Inversion
  42. It is moving the sole of the foot  outward the ankle
  43. It is moving the sole of the foot inward the ankle
  44. It is moving a part of the body forward on a plane parallel to the ground
  45. It is moving a part of the body backward on a plane parallel to the gound
  46. It is raising a part of the body
  47. It is lowering a part of the body
  48. Depression
  49. It is a movement that occurs only with the thumb and is unique to primates
  50. It occurs when the tip of the thumb and fingers are all brought together
  51. Occurs when their digits return to their normal position
  52. It is raising the foot up at the ankle joint
  53. It is pushing the foot down at the ankle joint
    Plantar flexion
  54. The six types of synovial joints
    • Ball-and-socket joint
    • Hinge joint
    • Pivot joint
    • Condyloid joint
    • Saddle jont
    • Gliding joint
  55. What are the multiaxial joints
    • Gliding joints
    • Ball-and-socket joints
  56. What are the two uniaxial joints
    • Hinge joint
    • Pivot joint
  57. What are the two bipolar joints
    • Condyloid joint
    • Saddle joint
  58. In this type of joint,  a ball shaped head fits into a concave socket
    Ball-and-socket joint
  59. Examples are: A ball shaped head of the femur fitting into the concave socket of the acetabulum; head of the humerus fitting into the glenoid fossa of the scapula
    ball-and-socket joints
  60. It is structured in such a way that a convex surface fits into a concave surface
    Hinge joint
  61. motions restricted to one plane
  62. Examples of this joint are the elbows, knees, middle and distal phalanges
    Hinge joints
  63. The joint is constructed in such a way that a pivot-like process rotates within a bony fossa around a longitudinal axis
    Pivot Joint
  64. An example of this joint is between the atlas vertebra that rotates within the bony fossa of the axis vertebra
    Pivot joint
  65. Condyloid joint is also called ___
    Ellipsoidal joint
  66. It consists of an oval-shaped condyle that fits into an elliptical cavity
    Condyloid joint or Ellipsoidal joint
  67. It means that motion is possible in two planes at right angles to each other
    Biaxial joint
  68. Some of the carpals bones of the wrist are of this joint
    Condyloid joint or Ellipsoidal joint
  69. In this joint, one articular surface is concave in one direction and convex in the other while the other articular surface is reciprocally convex and concave.
    Saddle joint
  70. This is the joint that allows the opposition of the thumb
    Saddle joint
  71. This type of joint is formed by either opposing plane surfaces or slightly convex and concave surfaces
    Gliding joint
  72. This type of joint only allows gliding movement
    Gliding joint
  73. These joints are those in between the superior and inferior articular processes of the vertebrae in the spine
    Gliding joints
  74. these are closed sacs with synovial membrane lining
  75. They facilitate the gliding of either muscle over muscle or tendons over bony ligamentous surfaces
  76. Three types of bursae
    • Subcutaneous bursae
    • Subfascial bursae
    • Subtendinous bursae
  77. Bursae found under the skin wherever the skin is on top of an underlying bony process
    Subcutaneous bursae
  78. Bursae located between muscles
  79. They are found above the fascia of one muscle and below the fascia of another
    Subfascial bursae
  80. It is the fibrous connective tissue that covers the epimysium of a muscle bundle
  81. Bursae found where one tendon overlies another tendon or where one tendon overlies some bony projection
    Subtendinous bursae
Card Set
Chapter 8
The Articular System
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