Chapter 10

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Chapter 10
2014-09-06 14:27:08
Chapter 10 AnaPhy
The Nervous System: Introduction, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
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  1. It is the boy's control center and communication network
    Nervous System
  2. Master endocrine gland
    Pituitary gland
  3. It is the control center for the whole nervous system
    Central Nervous System
  4. It consists of the brain and the spinal cord
    Central Nervous System
  5. This consists of all the nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord with the sensory receptors, muscles and glands
    Peripheral Nervous Sytem
  6. Two subcategories of Peripheral Nervous System
    • Afferent Peripheral System
    • Efferent Peripheral System
  7. it consists of sensory neurons
    Afferent peripheral system
  8. Sensory neurons is also known as ___
    Afferent neurons
  9. Convey information from receptors in the periphery of the body to the brain and spinal cord.
    Sensory or Afferent neurons
  10. Consists of motor neurons
    Efferent Peripheral System
  11. Motor neurons is also known as ___
    Efferent neurons
  12. Convey information from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands
    Motor or efferent neurons
  13. Two subcategories of the efferent peripheral system
    • Somatic nervous system
    • Autonomic nervous system
  14. conducts impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the skeletal muscle
    Somatic nervous system
  15. Conducts impulses from the brain and spinal cord to smooth muscle tissue, to cardiac muscle tissue of the heart and to glands
    Autonomic Nervous system
  16. Two divisions of Autonomic Nervous System
    • Sympathetic Division
    • Parasympathetic Division
  17. Stimulates or speeds up activity. Involves energy expenditure
    Sympathetic division
  18. Division of the ANS that uses norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter
    Sympathetic Division
  19. Stimulates or speeds up vegetative activities and restores or slows down other activities
    Parasympathetic Division
  20. Division of the ANS that uses acetylcholine  as a neurotransmitter
    Parasympathetic division
  21. transmit information called nerve impulses in the form of electrochemical changes
    Neurons or nerve cells
  22. It is a bundle of nerve cells or fibers
  23. Cells in the nervous tissue that is for support and protection
    Neuroglia or Glial Cells
  24. Means "nerve glue"
  25. Over ___ of all brain cells are neuroglia cells
  26. wrap around nerve cells to form supporting network in the brain and spinal cord
  27. star-shape cells
  28. they help regulate nutrients and ions that are needed by the nerve cells
  29. The look like small astrocytes
  30. They provide support by forming semirigid connective like tissue rows between neurons in the brain and spinal cord
  31. they produce fatty myelin sheath on the nerons of the brain and spinal cord of the CNS
  32. Engulf and destroy microbes like bacteria and cellular debris
    Microglia cells
  33. They line the fluid filled ventricles of the brain
    Ependymal cells
  34. The form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers in the PNS
    Schwann cells
  35. extend to the axon part of the cell, referred to as the fiber of the cell
  36. Where protein synthesis occurs
    Nissl Bodies or Chromatophilic Substance
  37. Two kinds of nerve fibers
    • Dendrites
    • Axon
  38. They are short and branched like the branches of the tree
  39. These are the receptive areas of the neuron
  40. Slight enlargement of the cell
    Axonal hillock
  41. It is a long process of fiber that begins singly but may branch
  42. fine extensions of axons that contact with dendrites of other neurons
    Axon Terminals
  43. Fatty sheets produced by Schwann cells
  44. These are cells that conduct impulses from one part of the body to another
  45. Structural classification of neurons
    • Multipolar
    • Bipolar
    • Unipolar
  46. These are neurons that have several dendrites and one axon
  47. Schwan cells are also known as ___
  48. gaps in the myelin sheath
    nodes of Ranvier or neurofibral nodes
  49. Nodes of Ranvier is also known as ___
    Neurofibral nodes
  50. These allow ions to flow freely from the extracellular fluids to the axons
    Nodes of Ranvier or Neurofibral nodes
  51. These neurons have one dendrite and one axon
    Bipolar neurons
  52. They function as receptor cells in special sense organs
    Bipolar neurons
  53. Three areas of the body where bipolar neurons are found
    • Retina of the eye
    • the Inner Ear
    • Olfactory area of the nose
  54. Have only one process extending from the cell body
    Unipolar neurons
  55. The single process of a unipolar neuron branches into a ___ ___ that functions as an axon and a ___ ___ that functions as a dendrite
    • Central branch
    • Peripheral Branch
  56. These are peripheral nerve endings of sensory nerves that respond to stimuli
  57. The first nerve cell receiving the impulse directly from the receptor
    Sensory or afferent neuron
  58. These are found in the brain ad spinal cord. They transmit the sensory impulse to the appropriate part of the brain or spinal cord for interpretation and processing
    Association or Internuncial Neurons
  59. This neuron brings about the reaction to the original stimulus
    Efferent or Motor Neuron
  60. Resting or membrane potential is maintained by the ___
    Sodium-potassium pump
  61. The outside of the nerve fiber is positively charged while the inside is negatively charged
    Membrane or resting potential
  62. It creates the cell's action potential
  63. A change from negative to a positive charge inside the nerve membrane
  64. pumping out of sodium ions and pulling back in of potassium ions
  65. Self propagating wave of depolarization followed by repolarization moving down the nerve fiber
    Nerve Impulse
  66. **note**
    An unmyelinated nerve fiber conducts an impulse over its entire length, but the conduction is slower than that along a myelinated fiber
  67. An impulse on a myelinated motor fiber going to a skeletal muscle could travel about _______, while an impulse on an unmyelinated fiber would travel only ________
    • 120 meters per second
    • 0.5 meter per second
  68. States that if a nerve fiber carries an impulse, it will carry a full strength impulse
    All-or-none law
  69. These are areas where the terminal branches of an axon are anchored close to, but not touching, the ends of the dendrites of another neuron
  70. Very low concentration of chemicals which are transmitted across the synapses and move across the gap
  71. Allows impulse to travel across the synaptic cleft to the postsynaptic neuron
  72. Immediately begins to breakdown the acetylcholine after it performs its function
  73. Adrenaline is also called ___
  74. Best known transmitters
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norepinephrine
  75. Neurotransmitters
    • Acetylcholine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Serotonin
    • Dopamin
    • Endorphins
  76. An involuntary reaction to an external stimulus
  77. An involuntary reaction or response to a stimulus applied to our periphery and transmitted to the CNS
  78. It is a pathway that results into a reflex
    Reflex arc
  79. It is the basic unit of the nervous system and is the smallest and simplest pathway able to receive stimulus
    Reflex arc
  80. The reflex arc has ___ components
  81. Components of the reflex arc
    • A sensory receptor in the skin
    • A sensory or afferent neuron
    • Association or internuncial neurons within the spinal cord
    • A motor or efferent neuron
    • An effector organ
  82. Knee-jerk reflex is also know as ___
    Patellar tendon reflexes
  83. Examples of automatic subconscious reactions
    • Coughing
    • Sneezing
    • Swallowing
    • Vomiting
  84. Refers to groups of myelinated axons
    White matter
  85. Forms the nerve tracts of the CNS
    White matter
  86. The gray areas of he nervous system consisting of nerve cell bodies and dendrites
    Gray matter
  87. The gray matter on the surface of the brain
  88. Bundle of fibers located outside the CNS
  89. Nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS
  90. Bundle of fibers inside the CNS
  91. conduct impulses up the cord and are concerned with sensation
    Ascending tracts
  92. Conduct impulses down the cord and are concerned with motor functions
    Descending tracts
  93. nerve cell bodies and dendrites inside the CNS
  94. areas of gray matter in the spinal cord
  95. Begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongata of the brainstem
    Spinal cord
  96. Spinal cord has a length of __ to __ ___
    16 to 18 inches
  97. How many segments are there in a spinal cord?
    31 segments
  98. a series of connective tissue membranes
  99. Dura mater means ___
    Tough mother
  100. It forms a tough outer tube of white fibrous connective tissue
    Dura mater
  101. The Arachnoid mater is also known as the ___
    Spider layer
  102. It forms a delicate connective membranous tube inside the dura mater
    Arachnoid mater or Spider layer
  103. The Pia mater is also known as the ___
    delicate mother
  104. it is a transparent fibrous membrane that forms a tube around and adheres to the surface of the spinal cord
    Pia mater or delicate mother
  105. Between the dura mater and the arachnoid is a space called ___
    Subdural space
  106. The subdural space contains ___
    Serous fluid
  107. It is the space between the arachnoid and the pia mater
    Subarachnoid space
  108. The subarachnoid space contains this clear, watery fluid
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  109. It is the space between the meninges and the vertebrae
    Epidural space
  110. This space contains loose connective tissue and some adipose tissue
    Epidural space
  111. Functions of the Spinal cord
    • It conveys sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain and conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery
    • It provides a means of integrating reflexes
  112. It is where spinal nerves are connected in the segment of the spinal cord
  113. It is the sensory root and conducts only sensory nerve fibers. It conducts impulses from the peripheryto the spinal cord
    Posterior or dorsal root
  114. It is the motor root. It conducts impulses from the spinal cord to the periphery
    Anterior or ventral root
  115. **note**
    31 pairs of spinal nerves
  116. **note**
    Most of the spinal nerves exit the vertebral column
  117. **note**
    • C1 - C8
    • T1 - T12
    • L1 - L5
    • S1 - S5
    • Cx