Social Psychology Quiz #1

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Social Psychology Quiz #1
2014-09-06 22:01:32
socialpsych ualbany

Quiz #1
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  1. What is Social Psychology
    An attempt to understand and explain how the thought, feeling, and behavior of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
  2. What makes social psychology a science?
    the use of systematic methods
  3. What is a theory
    An organized system of ideas that tries to explain why two or more events are related
  4. What makes a good hypothesis
    • specific statements about a behavior
    • they can be tested
    • test a small amount of evidence related to the theory
  5. What are the social psychology methods
    • correlational method
    • experimental method
  6. correlational method
    • The method whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the degree of covariation between them is assessed
    • ex.Does satisfaction with SUNYA increase with GPA?
  7. types of correlational methods
    • positive correlation (height and shoe size) 
    • negative correlation (year in school and writing home)
    • no correlation (year in school and height)
  8. What is good about correlational research
    • easy to collect data
    • easy to quantify the results 
    • easy to communicate the results to the public
  9. What is bad about correlational research
    results are easy to misinterpret
  10. how can correlations be misinterpreted
    • A may seem to cause B but instead B causes A
    • Using condoms predicts STDs or STDs predicts use of condoms
    • Interpret: A > B
    • In truth: B > A

    • Third variables 
    • Interpret: A > B
    • In Truth: A < C > B
  11. experimental method
    • Research designed to examine the cause-effect relationships between variables 
    • The experimenter randomly assigns participants to different levels of an independent variable and then tests its influence on a dependent variable
  12. independent variable
    the experimental variable that the researcher manipulates
  13. dependent variable
    the experimental variables that is measured because it is believed to depend on the manipulated changes in the independent variable
  14. random assignment
    everyone in the population has an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment
  15. Kitty Genovese
    brutally murdered on the streets near her house, none of the apartment residents called the cops
  16. Latané and Darley (1968)
    • theory: diffusion of responsibility caused lack of helping
    • hypothesis: as the number of bystanders increases, the amount of helping should decrease
  17. External Validity
    the extent to which results from the study can be generalized
  18. two types of realism
    • mundane realism
    • experimental realism
  19. mundane realism
    Does this study "look like" the real world
  20. experimental realism
    does this study "feel like" the real world
  21. Was the Darley and Latané more mundane or experimental realism
    experimental, felt real but did not look like the real world
  22. how do you attain internal validity
    • nothing other than the independent variable changes from condition to condition
    • requires: random assignment to condition, identical procedures across conditions
  23. what is social influence
    • "pressures" created by other people
    • is the attempt to change the attitudes or behaviors of others in a particular direction through the exercise of social power
  24. forms of social influence
    • conformity
    • compliance
    • obedience
  25. conformity
    the pressure to be similar to otheres
  26. compliance
    the pressure to yield to an appeal by others (persuasion)
  27. obedience
    the pressure to yield to a command by others
  28. why do people bend to social pressure
    • normative influence 
    • informational influence
  29. normative influence
    • conformity to gain a reward or avoid punishment - need to be accepted
    • follow social norms because it is expected from us
  30. informational influence
    • conformity due to a desire to gain information (ambiguous situations)
    • ex. is that scream someone getting mugged or fooling around
  31. norm
    social rule or standard telling individuals how they should or should not behave
  32. descriptive norm
    a norm that simply indicate what most people do in a given situation
  33. injunctive norm
    norms specifying what ought to be done - what is approved or disapproved behavior in a given situation
  34. private acceptance
    conforming to other people's behavior out of genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is right
  35. public compliance
    conforming to other people's behavior publicly, without necessarily believing in what is being said or done
  36. what increases conformity pressure
    • size (up to a point)
    • cohesiveness
    • lack of social support
    • unanimity
    • status within the group
  37. Sherif's autokinetic effect
    • visual illusion
    • how much did the light move
    • individually, people had wildly divergent opinions
    • when people were put together and had them announce how much the light moved, everyone agreed on a standard established by the group
  38. ambiguous reality
    • look to group to help them define reality
    • example of informational influence
    • private acceptance; most people denied that the group played any role at all 
    • keep norms even when alone
  39. when is informational influence the strongest?
    • when the situation is ambiguous
    • during crisis
    • when others are experts
  40. resisting conformity
    • related to our values and self-concept
    • desire for personal control
    • ex. if your parents don't like your partner, you may like them more
  41. obedience to authority
    the most coercive type of social influence
  42. how many people reached the 450v in shocks for milgram experiment
    • 62.5%
    • 80% continued after first plea
  43. variation with three teachers in milgram experiment
    • one ally quits at 150
    • one ally quits at 210
    • one continues to 450
    • percentage: 10%
  44. variation when experimenter leaves room and 2nd teacher comes in a introduces 15-shock increment
    percentage: 20%