Chapter 16

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Mingming
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282285
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Chapter 16
Updated:
2014-09-07 02:41:27
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Chapter 16 Anaphy
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Nutrition and the Digestive System
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  1. Secrete small amounts of saliva
    Buccal glands
  2. pour their secretion into ducts that empty into the mouth
    (large) Salivary glands
  3. Three pairs of salivary glands
    • Parotid gland
    • Submandibular or Submaxillary gland
    • Sublingual gland
  4. Siliva is ___ water
    99.5%
  5. The remaining 0.5% of saliva is composed of
    • Chlorides
    • Amylase
    • Bicarbonates and phosphates
    • Urea and uric acid
    • Mucin
    • Lysozyme
  6. activates amylase
    Chloride
  7. initiates breakdown of complex carbohydrates
    Amylase
  8. Keep the saliva slightly acidic
    Bicarbonate and Phospate
  9. Waste products
    Urea and uric acid
  10. Forms mucus to lubricate food
    Mucin
  11. Destroys bacteria, protecting the mucous membrane from infection and the teeth from possible decay
    Lysozyme
  12. Teeth are also known as ___
    Dentes
  13. They are located in the sockets of alveolar processes of the mandible and maxillae bones
    Teeth
  14. Chewing is also called ___
    Mastication
  15. There are ___ temporary or ___ teeth that form in infants between ___ to ___
    • 20
    • deciduous
    • 6 months
    • 2 years
  16. By the age of ___, there will develop ___ permanent teeth
    • 13
    • 32
  17. The ___ front teeth are also called ___
    • 8
    • incisors
  18. The ___ canine teeth are used to ___ food
    • 4
    • tear
  19. one cusp: ___
    two cusps: ___
    three cusps: ___
    • Cuspid
    • Bicuspid
    • Tricuspid
  20. The molar teeth ___ food
    grind
  21. Two kinds of molar teeth
    • Premolars
    • molars
  22. The ___ premolars have ___ cusps and are called ___
    • 8
    • 2
    • bicuspids
  23. Some of the ___ molars have ___ cusps but many have ___ cusps and the ___ actually has ___ cups
    • 12
    • 3
    • 4
    • maxillary first molar
    • 5
  24. The alveolar process are covered by the ___ or ___
    • gums
    • gingivae
  25. Anchors the teeth in position and acts as a shock absorber
    Periodontal ligament
  26. It is the portion of the teeth above the level of the gums
    Crown
  27. The hardest substance in the body that protects the tooth from wear and acids
    Enamel
  28. It is a constricted junction between the crown and root
    cervix or neck
  29. It can consist of one, two or three projections embedded in the socket
    Root
  30. Teeth are made of  ___
    dentin
  31. It is a bone like substance that encloses the pulp cavity in the crown
    Dentin
  32. They are narrow extensions of the pulp cavity into the root
    root canal
  33. Where blood vessels and nerves enter the tooth and become part of the pulp
    Apical foramen
  34. The dentin of the root is covered by this substance
    Cementum
  35. It attached the root to the periodontal ligament
    Cementum
  36. It is part of both digestive and respiratory systems
    pharynx
  37. it begins the process of swallowing or deglutition
    pharynx
  38. Other term for swallowing
    deglutition
  39. It moves food from the mouth to the stomach
    Swallowing or deglutition
  40. It is a soft mass of food
    bolus
  41. the food bolus passes through the laryngopharynx and enters the esophagus in about ___
    1 second
  42. It is a collapsible muscular tube that is situated behind the trachea or the windpipe
    Esophagus
  43. The esophagus is about ___ (___) long
    • 10 inches
    • 23-25cm
  44. The esophagus begins at the end of ___. It passes through the ___ , pierces the diaphragm through an opening called ____ and ends at the ___
    • laryngopharynx
    • mediastinum
    • esophageal hiatus
    • superior portion of the stomach
  45. It secretes mucus and transport food into the stomach
    Esophagus
  46. movement of solid semisolid food from the mouth to the stomach takes about ___ to ___
    4 to 8 seconds
  47. movement of liquid from the mouth to the stomach takes about ___
    1 second
  48. Connects the esophagus to the stomach and controls the passage of food into the stomach
    Lower esophageal or gastroesophageal sphincter
  49. it is an enlargement in the gastrointestinal tract
    stomach
  50. Four parts of the stomach
    • Cardia
    • Fundus
    • Body
    • Pylorus or Antrum
  51. It surrounds the gastroephageal sphincter
    cardia
  52. is a rounded portion above and to the left of the cardia
    Fundus
  53. The large central portion of the stomach
    body
  54. it is a narrow inferior region that connects with the duodenum of the small intestine via the pyloric sphincter
    pylorus or antrum
  55. Other term for pylorus
    antrum
  56. when there is no food, the mucosa lies in large folds called ___
    rugae
  57. Secreting cells of the gastric glands
    • Zymogenic or chief cells
    • Parietal cells
    • Mucous Cells
  58. Secrete the principal gastric enzyme pepsinogen
    zymogenic
  59. Principal gastric enzyme
    pepsinogen
  60. secrete hydrochloric acid, which activates the pepsinogen to become pepsin
    Parietal cells
  61. Enzyme that breaks down proteins
    pepsin
  62. secretes mucous that protects the stomach from being digested
    Mucous cells
  63. The secretions of the gastric glands are referred to as ___
    Gastric juice
  64. Layers of the stomach
    • inner oblique
    • middle circular
    • outer longitudinal
  65. When the stomach is empty af this activity occurs, we experience ___
    growling
  66. The stomach empties all its contents into the duodenum of the small intestine approx. ___ after ingestion
    2-6 hrs
  67. The stomach absorbs ___, ___ and ____/____
    • water
    • salts
    • aspirin/ water
  68. It is a soft oblong gland
    Pancreas
  69. The pancreas is about ___ long and ___ thick
    • 6 inches
    • 1 inch
  70. it is found beneath the greater curvature
    pancreas
  71. Divisions of the pancreas
    • Head (part closest to the duodenum)
    • Body (the main part)
    • Tail
  72. they form the endocrine portion of the pancreas
    Islets of Langerhans or Pancreatic Islets
  73. Alpha cells secrete ____
    glucagon
  74. Beta cells secrete ___
    insulin
  75. Exocrine glands of the pancreas
    Acini
  76. Tube where the pancreatic juice leaves the pancreas
    • Pancreatic duct
    • Duct of Wirsung
  77. unites with the common bile duct and enters the dueodenum in a common duct
    Pancreatic duct or Duct of Wirsung
  78. Common duct of duodenum and pancreatic duct
    • Ampulla of Vater (before)
    • Hepatopancreatic Ampulla (now)
  79. one of the largest organs in the digestive system
    liver
  80. the liver weighs ___
    4 pounds
  81. The right ad left lobes of the liver are separated by the ___
    Falciform ligament
  82. Functional units of the liver
    Lobules
  83. Functions of the liver
    • Manufactures heparin, prothrombin, thrombin
    • Kupffer cells of the liver phagocytose certain bacteria and old, worn-out blood cells
    • Liver contains various enzymes that either breakdown poisons or transform them into less harmful substances
    • Excessive newly absorbed nutrients are collected in the liver
    • The liver store glycogen, copper, and iron, as well as vittamins A,D,E,K
    • The liver produces bile salts
  84. They break down fat
    Bile salts
  85. Located in a depression of the surface of the liver
    Gallbladder
  86. The Gallbladder is about ___ long
    3 to 4 inches
  87. It stores and concentrates bile
    Gallbladder
  88. The small intestine is ___ in length and averages ___ in diameter
    • 21 feet
    • 1 inch
  89. 3 portions of the small intestine
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
  90. It is the shortest part of the small intestine and is ___ long
    • Duodenum
    • 10 inches
  91. Part of the small intestine that is 8 ft long
    Jejenum
  92. The jejunum is ___ long
    8 feet
  93. It joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve
    Ileum
  94. Ileum measures ___
    12 feet
  95. Pits of the stomach
    Gastric glands
  96. Pits of the small intestine
    intestinal glands or crypts of Lieberkuhn
  97. Other term for intestinal glands
    Crypts of Lieberkuhn
  98. They secrete intestinal digestive enzymes
    intestinal glands or crypts of Lieberkuhn
  99. Secrete alkaline mucus
    Brunner's glands or Duodenal glands
  100. the digested, viscous semifluid contents of the intestine
    Chyme
  101. Approximately ___ of all absorption of nutrients occur in the small intestine
    80%
  102. walls of the tract thrown into a series of folds
    plicae
  103. projections that look like microscopic eye drop bulbs approx 0.5 to 1mm long
    Villi
  104. Villi are approx ___ long
    0.5mm to 1mm
  105. Structure of villus
    • Capillary network (where blood picks up nutrients)
    • Venule (transport the nutrients)
    • Arteriole
    • Lacteal (pick up fats)
  106. further increase the absorptive capability of the small intestine
    Microvilli
  107. Functions of the large intestine
    • absorption of water
    • manufacturing and absorption of certain vitamins
    • formation and expulsion of feces
  108. The large intestine is about ___ in length and ___ in diameter
    • 5 feet
    • 2.5 inches
  109. The large intestine is also referred to as ___
    bowel
  110. Four principal regions of the large intestine
    • Cecum (first part of the large intestine)
    • Colon (the largest part)
    • rectum
    • anal canal
  111. Allow materials to pass from the small intestine into the large intestine
    Ileocecal valve
  112. A twisted tube attached to the closed end of the cecum about ___ in length
    • vermiform appendix
    • 3 inches
  113. Pouches of the colon
    Haustre
  114. the last part of the colon where it also joins the rectum
    Sigmoid colon
  115. The last 7-8 inches of the gastrointestinal tract
    rectum
  116. THe terminal 1 inch of the rectum
    Anal canal
  117. Opening of the anal canal
    anus
  118. Vitamins absorbed in the colon
    • Vit K
    • Biotin
    • Vitamin B5
  119. consist of water, inorganic salts and epithelial cells
    Feces
  120. A normal inhabitant of our intestine that feeds on undigested materials. Bacteria in the feces.
    Escherichia coli
  121. An act of emptying the rectum
    Defecation

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