Managing Organizations - Chapter 13

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Managing Organizations - Chapter 13
2014-09-07 17:40:32

Managing Organizations - Duening and Ivancevich - Second Edition
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  1. Communication
    The transmission of mutual understanding through the use of symbols.
  2. MCG's five most important characteristics of leadership
    • Communication
    • Vision
    • Initiative
    • Judgment
    • Motivation
  3. Henry mintzberg's three primary manager roles
    • The manager's interpersonal roles require constant communication between managers and subordinates, customers, suppliers, peers, and superiors.
    • In the informational roles, managers seek information from all their contacts that may affect their job performance and goal accomplishment.
    • The manager's decisional roles involve using information, contacts, and relationships to allocate limited resources, solve conflict-laden situations, and initiate problem solving solutions.
  4. Encoding
    The translating of a communications into an understandable message by the communicator
  5. Media Richness
    The capacity of a medium to convey data.
  6. Bandwidth
    The amount of data that can be squeezed through an electronic medium.
  7. Information richness
    The ability of information to change understanding within a time interval.
  8. Decoding
    The process by which receivers translate a message into terms meaningful to them.
  9. Noise
    Any element or condition that disturbs or interferes with sending and receiving effective communication.
  10. Feedback
    An element that enables the communicator to determine whether a message has been received and whether it has produced the intended message.
  11. Downward Communication
    Communication that flows from individuals at higher levels.  The most common type of downward communication is job instructions that are transmitted from the superior to the subordinate.
  12. Upward Communications
    Communication that flows from individuals at lower levels of an organization structure to those at higher levels.
  13. Horizontal Communications
    Communication that occurs when the communicator and the receiver are at the same level in the organization.
  14. Sociogram
    A graphical presentation of pathways use for communication; shows who is communicating with whom.
  15. Cliques
    Groups within an organization that tend to communicate internally on a regular basis.
  16. Isolates
    Individuals or small groups within an organization that tend not to communicate with other individuals and/or groups.
  17. Liaison
    The role played by individuals or small groups in an organization to facilitate communication among isolates and cliques.
  18. Grapevine
    An informal communication network in organizations that short-circuits the formal channels.
  19. Rumors
    Unverified beliefs that circulate in an organization or its external environment; comprises the target (the rumor's object), the source (the rumor's communicator), and the allegation (the rumor's point about the target).
  20. Interpersonal communications
    Communications that comprise the full range of direct verbal and nonverbal signals that pass between and among individuals in the workplace.
  21. Information
    Derived from data; essentially, data that are organized for a specific purpose.
  22. Interpersonal style
    The way in which an individual prefers to relate to others.
  23. Johari Window: Arena
    The theoretical "best place" for communication where each party knows each other's positions and motivations well.  This is the most effective domain for interpersonal communications.
  24. Johari Window: Blind Spot
    When relevant information is known to others but not to a particular individual.  In this context, the individual is at a disadvantage when communicating with others because he or she cannot know the others' feelings, sentiments, and perceptions.
  25. Johari Window: Facade
    When information is known to an individual but unknown to others, the individual may resort to superficial communications; that is, he or she may present a false front.
  26. Johari Window: the Unknown
    If neither party in a communication pattern knows the relevant feelings, sentiments, and information each party is functioning in the unknown region.
  27. Exposure
    The process that the self uses to increase information known to others.
  28. Verbal Communication
    Communication by talking or writing.
  29. Oral communication
    The transmission and receipt of messages that occurs when the spoken word is used to transmit a message.
  30. Written Communication
    The transmission and receipt of messages through the written word.
  31. Nonverbal communication
    The transmission and receipt of messages by some medium other than verbal or written.
  32. Emblems
    Nonverbal communication that resembles sign language; examples include a "thumbs up" gesture indicating approval.
  33. Illustrators
    Physical gestures that illustrate what is being said (e.g., extended hands to indicate the size of an object); a form of body language.
  34. Regulators
    Physical movements that regulate a conversation (e.g., nodding the head to indicate understanding); a form of body language.
  35. Adapters
    Physical expressions used to adjust psychologically to the interpersonal climate of a particular situation; frequently used to deal with stress (e.g., drumming fingers on a table); a form of body language.
  36. affect displays
    Usually subconscious expressions that directly communicate an individual's emotions (e.g., a "closed posture" that communicates defensiveness); a form of body language.
  37. Proxemics
    An individual's use of space when communicating with others.
  38. Proxemic Zones
    • Intimate zone - touching to 18 inches
    • Personal zone - 18 inches to 4 feet
    • Social zone - 4 feet to 12 feet
    • Public zone - 12 feet and beyond
  39. Organizational communications
    Information that flows outward from the organization to the various components of its external operation environment.  Whatever the type of organization, the content of this information flow is controlled by the organization (e.g., advertising in business organizations).
  40. Paradigm
    A frame of reference used to understand the world.
  41. Selective perception
    The process of blocking out new information, especially if it conflicts with what the receiver believes.
  42. Value judgments
    The assignment by a receiver of an overall worth to a message before the receiver receives the entire communication.
  43. Status differences
    The differences between communicators that often hinder the communication.
  44. Source Credibility
    The trust, confidence, and faith that the receiver has in the words and actions of the communicator.
  45. Time Pressures
    Communication problems caused by inadequate time.
  46. Short-circuiting
    The failure of the formally prescribed communication system, often as the result of time pressures.  (e.g., the right person left off of an email chain)
  47. Ten Commandments of Effective Listening
    • Stop Talking!:  You cannot listen if you are talking
    • Put the talker at ease: Help him feel that he is free to talk.  Often called a permissive environment.
    • Show her that you want to listen: Look and act interested.  Do not read your email while she talks.  Listen to understand rather than to oppose.
    • Remove distractions: Don't doodle, tap, or shuffle papers.  Will it be quieter if you shut the door?
    • Empathize with him:  Try to put yourself in his place so that you can see his point of view.
    • Be patient:  Allow plenty of time.  Do not interrupt her.  Don't start for the door or walk away.
    • Hold your temper:  An angry person gets the wrong meaning from words.
    • Go easy on argument and criticism:  This puts him on the defensive.  He may"clam up" or get angry.  Do not argue; even if you win, you lose.
    • Ask questions: This encourages her and shows you you are listening.  it helps to develop points further.
    • Stop talking!:  This if first and last because all other commandments depend on it.  You just can't do a good listening job while you are talking.
  48. Communication overload
    The inability to absorb or adequately respond to messages directed to a person because of the excessive amount of information and data they must absorb.
  49. Exception principle of management
    Theory that states that only significant deviations from policies and procedures should be brought to the attention of managers.
  50. Empathy
    The ability to put oneself in another person's role and to assume that person's role and to assume that person's view points and emotions.
  51. Narrative
    A depiction of a sequence of events, real or fictional, to illustrate a truth or to create shared meaning