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The transmission of mutual understanding through the use of symbols.
MCG's five most important characteristics of leadership
Henry mintzberg's three primary manager roles
- The manager's interpersonal roles require constant communication between managers and subordinates, customers, suppliers, peers, and superiors.
- In the informational roles, managers seek information from all their contacts that may affect their job performance and goal accomplishment.
- The manager's decisional roles involve using information, contacts, and relationships to allocate limited resources, solve conflict-laden situations, and initiate problem solving solutions.
The translating of a communications into an understandable message by the communicator
The capacity of a medium to convey data.
The amount of data that can be squeezed through an electronic medium.
The ability of information to change understanding within a time interval.
The process by which receivers translate a message into terms meaningful to them.
Any element or condition that disturbs or interferes with sending and receiving effective communication.
An element that enables the communicator to determine whether a message has been received and whether it has produced the intended message.
Communication that flows from individuals at higher levels. The most common type of downward communication is job instructions that are transmitted from the superior to the subordinate.
Communication that flows from individuals at lower levels of an organization structure to those at higher levels.
Communication that occurs when the communicator and the receiver are at the same level in the organization.
A graphical presentation of pathways use for communication; shows who is communicating with whom.
Groups within an organization that tend to communicate internally on a regular basis.
Individuals or small groups within an organization that tend not to communicate with other individuals and/or groups.
The role played by individuals or small groups in an organization to facilitate communication among isolates and cliques.
An informal communication network in organizations that short-circuits the formal channels.
Unverified beliefs that circulate in an organization or its external environment; comprises the target (the rumor's object), the source (the rumor's communicator), and the allegation (the rumor's point about the target).
Communications that comprise the full range of direct verbal and nonverbal signals that pass between and among individuals in the workplace.
Derived from data; essentially, data that are organized for a specific purpose.
The way in which an individual prefers to relate to others.
Johari Window: Arena
The theoretical "best place" for communication where each party knows each other's positions and motivations well. This is the most effective domain for interpersonal communications.
Johari Window: Blind Spot
When relevant information is known to others but not to a particular individual. In this context, the individual is at a disadvantage when communicating with others because he or she cannot know the others' feelings, sentiments, and perceptions.
Johari Window: Facade
When information is known to an individual but unknown to others, the individual may resort to superficial communications; that is, he or she may present a false front.
Johari Window: the Unknown
If neither party in a communication pattern knows the relevant feelings, sentiments, and information each party is functioning in the unknown region.
The process that the self uses to increase information known to others.
Communication by talking or writing.
The transmission and receipt of messages that occurs when the spoken word is used to transmit a message.
The transmission and receipt of messages through the written word.
The transmission and receipt of messages by some medium other than verbal or written.
Nonverbal communication that resembles sign language; examples include a "thumbs up" gesture indicating approval.
Physical gestures that illustrate what is being said (e.g., extended hands to indicate the size of an object); a form of body language.
Physical movements that regulate a conversation (e.g., nodding the head to indicate understanding); a form of body language.
Physical expressions used to adjust psychologically to the interpersonal climate of a particular situation; frequently used to deal with stress (e.g., drumming fingers on a table); a form of body language.
Usually subconscious expressions that directly communicate an individual's emotions (e.g., a "closed posture" that communicates defensiveness); a form of body language.
An individual's use of space when communicating with others.
- Intimate zone - touching to 18 inches
- Personal zone - 18 inches to 4 feet
- Social zone - 4 feet to 12 feet
- Public zone - 12 feet and beyond
Information that flows outward from the organization to the various components of its external operation environment. Whatever the type of organization, the content of this information flow is controlled by the organization (e.g., advertising in business organizations).
A frame of reference used to understand the world.
The process of blocking out new information, especially if it conflicts with what the receiver believes.
The assignment by a receiver of an overall worth to a message before the receiver receives the entire communication.
The differences between communicators that often hinder the communication.
The trust, confidence, and faith that the receiver has in the words and actions of the communicator.
Communication problems caused by inadequate time.
The failure of the formally prescribed communication system, often as the result of time pressures. (e.g., the right person left off of an email chain)
Ten Commandments of Effective Listening
- Stop Talking!: You cannot listen if you are talking
- Put the talker at ease: Help him feel that he is free to talk. Often called a permissive environment.
- Show her that you want to listen: Look and act interested. Do not read your email while she talks. Listen to understand rather than to oppose.
- Remove distractions: Don't doodle, tap, or shuffle papers. Will it be quieter if you shut the door?
- Empathize with him: Try to put yourself in his place so that you can see his point of view.
- Be patient: Allow plenty of time. Do not interrupt her. Don't start for the door or walk away.
- Hold your temper: An angry person gets the wrong meaning from words.
- Go easy on argument and criticism: This puts him on the defensive. He may"clam up" or get angry. Do not argue; even if you win, you lose.
- Ask questions: This encourages her and shows you you are listening. it helps to develop points further.
- Stop talking!: This if first and last because all other commandments depend on it. You just can't do a good listening job while you are talking.
The inability to absorb or adequately respond to messages directed to a person because of the excessive amount of information and data they must absorb.
Exception principle of management
Theory that states that only significant deviations from policies and procedures should be brought to the attention of managers.
The ability to put oneself in another person's role and to assume that person's role and to assume that person's view points and emotions.
A depiction of a sequence of events, real or fictional, to illustrate a truth or to create shared meaning