A&P exam 1 (part 1)

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melissag94
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282335
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A&P exam 1 (part 1)
Updated:
2014-09-09 19:20:28
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structural hierarchy basic cell chemistry
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cell chemistry structural hierarchy fall 2014
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  1. everything is made up of 1 or more?
    atoms
  2. atoms are also known as
    building blocks
  3. atoms can be?
    living and nonliving
  4. made up of more than 1 atom
    macromolecules
  5. ex of macromolecules
    • carbs
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  6. information systems, carry genetic material
    nucleic acids
  7. large, stable molecules used to regulate physiology in body
    proteins
  8. proteins are good for
    structure and enzymes
  9. molecular level consists of?
    • atoms
    • molecules
    • macromolecules
  10. cellular level is made of?
    organelles cells
  11. basic unit of all living systems?
    cells
  12. specialized to perform specific tasks by the cell
    organelles
  13. T or F, you can not see most cells with the unaided eye
    true
  14. what makes up the tissue level?
    • cells
    • intercellular material
  15. groups of cells collected together to perform a common function
    tissues
  16. material between cells in tissues
    intracellular material
  17. how many types of tissues are there?
    2
  18. two types of tissues?
    • darker
    • lighter
  19. darker tissue?
    little to no intracellular material
  20. lighter tissues ?
    lots of intracellular material
  21. made of multiple tissue types, diff combos
    organs
  22. groups of different tissues working together for a common function
    organ level
  23. organ systems are?
    • cardiovascular
    • muscular
    • skeletal
    • respiratory
    • reproductive systems
  24. order of structural hierarchy?
    • molecular level
    • cellular level
    • tissue level
    • organ level
    • organ system
    • organism
  25. the structural hierarchy all together creates?
    an individual unit
  26. interconnection of structural hierarchy?
    if something changes in one level, it will effect all other levels
  27. 3 levels of structural hierarchy?
    • gross anatomy
    • microanatomy
    • molecular level
  28. what makes up gross anatomy?
    • organism
    • organ systems
    • organs
  29. what makes up microanatomy?
    • tissues
    • cells
    • organelles
  30. molecular level
    • macromolecules
    • molecules
    • atoms
  31. how many different types of atoms in nature?
    92
  32. 92 atoms in nature are known as
    elements
  33. subatomic particles?
    • protons
    • neutrons
    • electrons
  34. all atoms are made up of various combos of?
    • protons
    • neutrons
    • electrons
  35. atomic mass of proton?
    +1
  36. determine the identity of an atom by the number of
    protons
  37. atomic number =
    number of protons
  38. if you know the number of protons, then you know
    the element
  39. atomic mass of electrons?
    0
  40. determines the chemical properties of an atom
    electron
  41. for an unchanged atom, the number of protons = the number of _____
    electrons
  42. affect the chemical behavior of an atom
    electrons
  43. so much smaller than protons, that their atomic mass is irrelevant
    electrons
  44. these are about the same size of a proton
    neutrons
  45. atomic mass of an atom?
    #protons + #neutrons
  46. atomic mass - atomic number =
    number of neutrons
  47. atomic mass of neutron?
    1
  48. atoms of any element that differ from one another by their neutrons.. changes the atomic mass
    isotopes
  49. holds the protons and neutrons
    nucleus
  50. electrons are in constant motion moving around the nucleus
    orbitals
  51. orbitals are aka
    shells
  52. outermost orbital holds?
    8 valence electrons
  53. all atoms want? to be stable
    valence electrons
  54. simplest type of bonding
    ionic bonding
  55. give and take
    ionic bonding
  56. anion?
    negative ion
  57. cation?
    positive ion
  58. in nuclear reactives, the isotope causes?
    heavy water
  59. the element with an exception to the octet rule?
    hydrogen
  60. sharing?
    covalent bonding
  61. unequal sharing where molecule has a charge
    polar covalent bonding
  62. water molecules have ?
    6 valence electrons
  63. very weak bonds
    hydrogen bonds
  64. effect the way other molecules interact with each other
    hydrogen bonds
  65. through hydrogen bonding?
    water clings together
  66. the shape of the molecule can be determined with?
    hydrogen bonds
  67. __  __ __ are used by biological systems which account for 99% of all atoms
    6 main elements
  68. main elements?
    • carbon
    • hydrogen
    • nitrogen
    • oxygen
    • phosphorus
    • sulfur
  69. most important inorganic compound
    water
  70. water makes up?
    60-80% of cell volume
  71. water must be in what form to be useable?
    liquid
  72. 2 components of a solution
    solute + solvent
  73. nonpolar compound, will only dissolve in nonpolar solvent
    oil
  74. compounds with charges dissolve in?
    polar solvents
  75. polar solvents?
    • water
    • ionic compounds
    • polar covalent compounds
  76. nonpolar solvents?
    • organic solvents
    • nonpolar compounds
  77. can dissolve together or in each other
    polar solvents
  78. can dissolve itself
    water
  79. what is partially ionized
    water
  80. hydrogen ion is a? hydroxyl ion is a?
    • cation
    • anion
  81. concentrations of H+ and OH- are bother the same in?
    pure water
  82. when water is ionized it only releases?
    • either H+ OR OH-
    • NEVER BOTH
  83. in water having more of one than the other creates either an ?
    acid or base
  84. increase the H concentration for a?
    acid
  85. increase OH concentration for a
    base
  86. way of measuring strength of acid and or base
    pH scale
  87. neutral on pH scale?
    • 7
    • neither acid of base
  88. pH of pure water?
    7
  89. strongest acid pH? weakest acid pH?
    • 0
    • 6.999
  90. strongest base pH? weakest base?
    • 14
    • 7.1

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