Psychology Exam 1- SG

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Author:
Sypes
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282338
Filename:
Psychology Exam 1- SG
Updated:
2014-09-08 13:23:04
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Intro Psychology
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Psychology
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Exam 1 Study Guide- Intro to Psychology
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  1. Study of mental processes and behavior
    Psychology
  2. Psychology's roots
    • Aristotle (384- 322 BCE)
    • Rationalize
  3. 1st psychology experiments
    • Wilhelm Wundt and his students attempt to study the "atoms of the mind"
    • Leipzig, Germany 1879
    • How long for subjects to press a button after a ball drops
  4. William James
    • American philosopher
    • Wrote the highly influential Principles of Psychology in 1890
  5. Mary Calkins
    • William James' student
    • 1st female president of the APA
  6. Margaret Floyd Washburn
    • Animal behaviorist
    • 1st female psychology PhD (from Cornell)
    • 2nd female APA president
  7. German philosopher and physiologist
    Wilhelm Wundt
  8. English naturalist
    Charles Darwin
  9. Russian physiologist
    Ivan Pavlov
  10. Austrian physician
    Sigmund Freud
  11. Swiss biologist and studied children
    Jean Piaget
  12. American philosopher
    William James
  13. He emphasized the importance of unconscious sexual conflicts
    Sigmund Freud (Freudian psychology)
  14. You can observe, behaviors, but not thoughts or feelings
    • Behaviorism
    • John B. Watson
    • B.F Skinner
  15. The Cognitive Revolution
    • 1960's
    • Back to studying mental processes (how the mind perceives, processes, and remembers information)
  16. Psychology today
    We define psychology as the science of behavior and mental processes
  17. Explore the links between brain and mind
    Biological
  18. Study changing abilities from the womb to tomb
    Developmental
  19. Study how we perceive, think and solve problems
    Cognitive
  20. Investigate our persistent traits
    Personality
  21. Study and advise on behavior in the work place
    Industrial- organizational
  22. Help people cope personal and career challenges by recognizing their strengths and resources
    Counseling
  23. Asses and treat mental, emotional and behavior disorders (therapy)(cant prescribe medication)
    Clinical
  24. Explore how we view and affect one another
    Social
  25. Four main perspectives
    • Biological
    • Cognitive
    • Behavioral
    • Sociocultural
  26. How our physiology produces our behaviors and mental processes
    Biological
  27. Mental processes affect our behavior
    Cognitive
  28. External environment affects behavior
    Behavioral
  29. Others and our culture affects behavior
    Sociocultural
  30. We operate with a two-track mind called
    Dual processing
  31. Unconsciously primed people with positive and negative attitudes
    • Bargh
    • Chartrand
    • 1999
  32. Collecting data, analyzing data and drawing conclusions about the results
    Empirical methods
  33. We think we can predict events that we never really could have
    Hindsight bias
  34. The scientific attitude is composed of
    • Curiosity (passion for exploration)
    • Skepticism (doubting and questioning; asking for additional evidence)
    • Humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong)
  35. An explanation that organizes and predicts behavior or events
    Theory
  36. Testable, specific prediction, often prompted by a theory
    Hypothesis
  37. Types of research
    • Descriptive
    • Correlational
    • Experimental
  38. A measure of the extent to which two events vary together, and thus how well either predicts the other
    Correlation
  39. What does correlation express
    • Strength
    • Direction
  40. Correlation does not mean
    Causation
  41. Researchers vary one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable)
    Experiment
  42. What do experiments isolate
    Causes and their effects
  43. How should participants be assigned to control and experimental groups
    Randomly
  44. Exposed to the treatment (one version of the IV)
    Experimental group
  45. Contrasts the experimental group, serves as comparison to the effects of the treatment
    Control group
  46. An inactive substance in place of the experimental treatment; control groups may be given this
    Placebo
  47. Expectations about treatment effects can translate to real effects
    Placebo effect
  48. Descriptive statistics
    • Frequency distribution (table of results)
    • Measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode)
    • Measures of variability (range, standard deviation)
  49. Allows researchers to draw conclusion about their studies
    Inferential statistics
  50. Why study psychology
    • Because our intuitions are sometimes wrong
    • We need to subject our questions/ ideas to empirical/ scientific explanation

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