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- Male - Dog
- Female - Bitch
- Unweaned - Welp
- Giving Birth - Welping
- Group - Pack
- Male - Tom
- Female - Queen
- Young - Kitten
- Giving Birth - Queening
- Dog: 6 months
- Cat: 15-21 days; induced ovulator
The penis stimulates the vaginal area causing the ovary to release an egg.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN):
Glucose (measured in deciliters):
Coagulation Times (Clotting Time):
- Dog: 1-5 minutes
- Cat: 1-5 minutes
- Horse: 3-15 minutes
- - The natural habitat of the causative agent of an infectious disease.
- - Cannot shed the microorganism.
- - Never have symptoms.
- - Can be clinically infected.
- - Can shed microorganisms that cause the disease.
- - Can get disease, or transfer it.
- Reservoirs and carriers are distinguished from the source of infection, which can be any vertebrae, invertebrate, or inanimate object.
What's a contagious infection?
Implies spread of a disease following intimate contact with a carrier, or source of infection.
Transmissibility or Communicability:
Refers to a diseases ability to spread from an infected individual to susceptible host.
Between members of the same population.
Transmission of succeeding generations through genetic material. In other words, the bitch passes it to her pups inutero.
Name 6 types of transmission:
- 1. Horizontal transmission
- 2. Vertical transmission
- 3. Direct Contact
- 4. Indirect Contact
- 5. Airborne
- 6. Vector Borne
Direct Contact Transmission:
- - Most frequent and important means of spread.
- - Involves direct physical contact, or close approximation between the host and susceptible individuals.
- Involves the transfer of infectious organisms from the carer to a susceptible host by animate or inanimate objects that are known as vehicles, or fomites.
Spread of infection dependent on ability of resistant microorganisms to travel for relatively long distances, or to survive in the environment for extended periods.
Vector Borne Transmission:
Spread by arthropods most commonly that transmit infection from the infected host through its excretes/blood to a susceptible individual.
Vector that transmits an infected agent with out change in agent. (No molts)
Vector that transmits infected agent with molting of that agent occurring inside the vector.
Vector transmits the organism to its progeny/offspring via in ovary, or placenta.
Transmission of etiological agent via milk.
Transmission of infectious etiology from molting stages such as nymph to current host.
Ex: 3rd host, the tick, transmits etiology in nymphal form to 2nd host, the cow.
The "Lonestar Tick" is also known as:
What is the difference between Congenital and Hereditary?
Congenital refers to a disease that is present at birth, or develops due to the effects of some etiological factor in the developing embryo, or fetus in mother.
Hereditary refers to a disease/disorder that can be passed from either, or both parents to their offspring.
Kills all lifeforms including spores.
Immersing items in disinfectant solution to reduce level of contaminaton.
- -Any cleaning measure intended to prevent disease and promote health.
- -Kills mostly bacteria.
- -Destruction of most pathogenic microorganisms and bacteria, but not spores.
- - Used on inanimate objects.
- - Disinfectant by definition and contains the same properties.
- - Used on skin.
Until the 19th century, two factors prevented the development of surgery. What were they?
- 1. Lack of painkillers.
- 2. Post surgical infection.
- -Suggested that diseases are not an act of God.
- -Provided mean of magnification of bacteria.
- -Perfected the scope in later half of century.
- -Suggested that specific diseases are caused by specific organisms.
- -Discovered viruses.
What is an etiological agent?
Diseases occur when a harmful trigger causes loss of normal health, or disrupts tissue, or organ.
PPLO stands for ____________.
Pleuro Pneumonia Like Organisms
Etiologies can be:
- - Viral
- - Bacterial
- - Fungus
- - Metazoan
- - Rickettsial
- - Protozoan
- - Chlamydiae
- - Mycoplasms
What are the 3 basic shapes of a bacteria?
- 1. Coccus
- 2. Bacillus
- 3. Spirillum
- - Most animal like of protists.
- - Range in size.
- - Non-chlorophyll bearing plants.
- - Commonly divided under molds and yeast.
- - Unicellular
- - Rigid cell wall
- - Small microbes that are obligate intercellular parasites.
- - Totally dependent on cells of host tissue.
Microorganisms belonging to group that resembles Rickettsiae.
- - Smallest free living organisms.
- - No cell wall.
- - Resistant to antibiotics.
- - Living cells with DNA, or RNA.
- - They do not conform commonly accepted definitions of life forms.
A "Bactor" is a ______.
Classifying Etiological Agents: Internal Factors
- - Genetics
- - Immune System
- - Aging
Classifying Etiological Agents: External Factors
- - Physical
- - Chemical
- - Infections
- - Enviornmental
Causes of Diseases:
- 1. Hereditary
- 2. Congenital
- 3. Deficiency
- 4. Physical Trauma
- 5. Poison
- 6. Metazoan
Host Factors that influence disease in Dogs and Cats:
- - Developmental anomalies of the immune system.
- - Maternal immunity
- - Age at time of exposure.
- - Concurrent illness
- - Nutrition
3 Agent Factors that Influence Disease:
- 1. Dosage
- 2. Virulance
- 3. Route of Inoculation
Environmental Factors that influence disease in Dogs and Cats:
- - Population density
- - Sanitation
- - Ventilation
- - Accumulation of excretion
- - Animal movement from population
Principals of Controlling Infectious Diseases:
- - Vaccination Programs
- - Clinical Signs (Symptoms)
- - Identify Asymptomatic Carriers
- - Isolate Young Animals
- - Prioritize Cleanliness
Control Factors for Shelters, Kennels and Catteries:
- - Temperature: 72 degrees
- - Humidity: 40-60%
- - Air Exchanges: 17/hr s ideal. Tomball has 12/hr.
- - Light Cycle: 14 hours light / 10 hours dark
- - Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach): 1 part bleach / 30 parts H2O
The Purpose of Vaccination is:
1. To protect the individual from disease.
2. To maintain a large number of immune individuals in the population so that disease if readily transmitted.
What are the two types of vaccines?
- 1. Parenteral
- 2. Intranasal
What are two ways to protect the litter?
- 1. Vaccine 1 month prior to breeding.
- 2. Isolate the newborn after vaccination (2 wks.)
Who are the two Fathers of Vaccine?
- 1. Louis Pasteur
- 2. Sir Alfred Jenner
Vaccines do what?
- 1. Improve efficiency of food animal production.
- 2. Prevent disease spread.
How does a vaccine protect the patient?
By the animals immune system responding in a complex fashion by producing antibodies (IgA, IgE, IgM, or IgG) specific for antigen in vaccine.
Vaccines can be made from:
- - Viruses
- - Bacteria
- - Rickettsiae
- - Protozoans
- - Fungi
Vaccines made from killed bacteria are called ______.
Ex: Bordatella bronchiseptica.
Why do animals have a reaction to bacteria vaccines?
It's easier to induce protection with a virus vaccine than a bacterin due to toxins in the bacterial cell wall.
What are antigens?
Specific parts of the infective agent recognized by the immune system.
The portion of the antigen that actually binds with the antibody is called the _____.
What are the 3 types of vaccines?
- 1. Killed
- 2. Modified
- 3. Recombinant
This type of vaccine is known to be safe & stable. It is the only type of vaccine that should be given to a pregnant animal.
A killed vaccine is also known as an _______.
This type of vaccine contains the actual "bug" that is injected. It is superior in protection, seeing as it not only stimulates production of antibodies against that antigen, but that it also stimulates immunity in general to other causes of disease.
Modified live vaccine.
A modified live vaccine is also known as an ______.
Humoral immunity =
This type of vaccine has complete immunity, no virulence and no adjuvants.
What do adjuvants to?
They create inflammation, thus increasing antibody response.
Why is aluminum not used in vaccines anymore?
It caused feline sarcomas.
- - B cell immunity
- - No memory
- - Contains B Lymphocytes and the 4 immunoglobulin classes (IgM, IgA, IgG & IgE)
- - Helps prevent serious systemic clinical signs.
- - Blood
Cell Mediated Immunity:
- - T cell immunity
- - Memory immunity
- - Skin
The Humoral Response:
- - Involves Lymphocytes and plasma cells.
- - Both from bone marrow, but mainly from spleen, liver, thymus, and lymph nodes of intestines. (Peyers Patches)
The cells produce inflammatory mediates, which regulate inflammation:
The cells are modified lymphocytes that produce antibodies of IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE:
The production of an antibody-secreting plasma cell from an anitgen-stimulated B cell:
- When a B cell comes into contact with an antigen, which fits it surface receptors, it is prompted to start proliferating and its offspring are stimulated to produce more antibodies.
- The B cells that develop into plasma cells must travel through the thymus.
- The thymus is large..
4 reasons vaccinations fail:
- 1. Animals response
- 2. Handling and administration of vaccine
- 3. Maternal antibody interference
- 4. Strain in the vaccine too different from strain needed
What are maternal antibodies?
They are protective for neonates until levels fall below critical points. However, antibodies react with vaccines rendering them useless for inducing protective levels of antibodies.
4 reasons for failure of immune response:
- 1. Maternal antibodies
- 2. Human error
- 3. Preexisting infection
- 4. Time
3 complications that can arise with vaccination:
- 1. Pain/lethargy
- 2. Anaphylaxis
- 3. Injection Site Reaction
4 types of injection site reactions:
- 1. Granulomas
- -lumps from vaccination because of
- local reactants to adjuvants
- 2. Sarcomas
- -similar to granulomas, but with
- more grim prognosis
- 3. Vasculitis
- -when vaccine antigen & the
- corresponding antibody are deposited
- in walls of small blood vessels.
- 4. Uveitis
- -reported with CAV-1 vaccines
What was the first nonadjuvant rabies vaccine?
Purevax, By Merial
Sample K9 Vaccination Schedule:
- 6 wks. - 1st Parvo (CPV-2)
- 8-10 wks. - Distemper, Hepatitis,
- Leptospirosis, Parvovirus,
- Cornavirus, & Parainfluenza
- (DHLPCP) & Bordetella
- 10-12 wks. - DHLPCP & Bordetella
- 14-16 wks. - DHLPCP & Rabies
- 20 wks. - Parvo.
- 6 mon. - Parvo.
- 1 year. - DHLPCP & Bordetella & Rabies
Sample Feline Vaccination Schedule:
- 8-10 wks. - Feline Herpes Virus,
- Feline Calicivirus,
- Feline Panleukopenia Virus, &
- Feline Leukemia Virus
- (FHV-1, FCV, FPV, & FeLV)
- 12 wks. - FHV-1, FCV, FPV, FeLV & Rabies
- 6 mon. - FeLV
- 12 mon. - FHV-1, FCV, FPV, FeLV, & Rabies
Cat scratch disease =
Chagus Disease =
Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Giardia, etc.
Cutaneous Larval Migrans =
Leptospira interrogans, Canicola, Pomona, Harjo, & Icterohaemorrhagica
Sarcoptes scabiei & Notoedres cati
Would Infections =
Pasturella multocida & Pasturella haemolytica
3 types of viral dieases:
- 1. Encephalitis
- 2. Infectious hepatitis
- 3. Rabies
5 types bacterial diseases:
- 1. Anthrax
- 2. Brucellosis
- 3. Leptospirosis
- 4. Campylobacter
- 5. Salmonella (causes polyarthritis in equine)
Name 3 protozoan diseases:
- 1. Amebiasis
- 2. Toxoplasmosis
- 3. Giardia
- - called Giardia lambia (humans)
- - called Giardia intestinalis (dog/cat)
Name 3 metazoan diseases:
- 1. Scabies
- 2. Cestodes
- 3. Nematodes
What is the most common etiological agent of all animal bite wounds?
Name 2 zoonotic diseases:
P. multocida & Fransiella tularensis
What is the etiology for Anthrax?
What is the etiology for the Bubonic Plague?
What is another name for the Bubonic Plague?
- - Notorious in London during the 19th century.
- - Came from Italy.
- - Flea eats bacteria in Yersenia pestis.
- - This causes obstipation in the flea.
- - So the flea eats the bactera and vomits on the rat/human and thus get Yersenia pestis.
An organism that causes disease is referred to as an ______.
The relationship of an antibody with an antigen in ratio terms is referred to as a _____.
A patient parasitized with an etiological agent is referred to as the ____.
The relationship of factors which determine the frequency and distribution of infectious diseases is referred to as ________.
TVMDL stands for:
Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory
The natural host of a disease is referred to as the ______.
The development of the disease in question is referred to as the ______.
Where is the veterinary CDC?
What is the general term for activities of the immune system?
4 types of non-specific immunity?
- 1. species resistance
- 2. mechanical & chemical barriers
- 3. inflammatory response
- 4. interferon & complement
Refers to genetic ability of a species to provide defense against certain pathogens:
Prevent entry of microogranisms:
Mechanical & chemical barriers
- - Cells release enzymes when invaded by microorganisms.
- - Mediator enzymes attract WBC (basophls) which dilate blood vessels.
- - Neutrophils move through cellular clefts into tissue to phagocytize.
Cells invaded by viruses produce a chemical called _____.
(which interferes with viruses ability to replicate with in host cell)
Another group of enzymes activated during infections is _______.
(Binds to invading cell wall producing small holes in membrane. This results in rupture of foreign cell before it can damage host cell.)
Specific immunity is carried out by two type of WBC lymphocytes. What are they?
B-Lymphocytes & T-Lymphocytes
- - Produce antibodies in response to specific antigen stimulation known as humoral immunity.
- - Originate in bone marrow and lymphoid organs, some of these B-Lymphocytes will become plasma cells and produce antibodies after passing through the thymus.
- - Originate in bone marrow, also known as cell mediated immunity.
- - After leaving bone marrow, they go to thymus, where they are programmed to recognize markers on cells.
- - After they leave they thymus, they go to spleen, the lymph nodes and then circulate in the body looking for invading cells with unique markers.
Canine Viral Enteritis:
- One of the most common causes of infectious diarrhea in dogs under 6 months.
What are the 3 important viruses causing enteric disease in canines?
- 1. Canine Cornonavirus
- 2. Canine Parvovirus
- 3. Canine Rotavirus
Canine Parvo Enteritis (CPV-1):
- - Discovered in 1967 in military dogs. (CPV-1)
- - A.K.A "Minute Virus"
- - Contagious and often fatal by its host cell range, spectra of blood agglutination, genetic properties and antigenecity.
- - Related to Bovine Parvo.
Canine Parvo Enteritis (CPV-2):
- - 1977-78
- - Often fatal
- - Evolved into type 2a (1982) and then into type 2b (1984).
- - This made it more susceptible to animals and allowed infection of felines with type 2c (2000).
Canine Parvovirus Enteritis:
- - Non enveloped DNA virus.
- - Morbidity: 20-90%
- - Mortality: 0-50%
- - Incubation: 7-14 days / CPV-2: 4-6 days
- - Contamination: Oral/Nasal route (primarily feces)
- - Symptoms: bloody diarrhea
- - Clinical sign: Leukocytopenia
- - Often associated with gram negative sepsis.
- - Affects younger and lighter animals
Location of Parvo:
- - CPV -1, CPV-2a, & 2b reported in all countries.
- - CPV-2c reported in North America, South America, Asia, Europe, but not Australia.
- - CPV-2c found in 14 states in U.S.
- - CPV of all types divide and multiply in fat cells of the GI tract.
- - CPV-2C does not react to ELISA.
- - Post mortem for CPV-2C require a portion of the small intestines and tongue.
- - Can infect feline.
- - FPV vaccine protects cats from CPV-2C.
- - 20 strains of CPV-2c; 3 are lethal to dog.
- - Doberman Pinschers and Rottweilers most susceptible to parvo.
What are the two vaccines for CPV?
- - Galaxy Vaccines for CPV-2b
- - Continuum Plough Vaccnes reported protect against CPV-2C.
Symptoms/Clinical Signs of Parvo:
- - Pyrexia
- - Lethargy
- - Anorexia
- - Vomting
- - Diarrhea
- - Dehydration
- - PCV= 60-70%
- - Lack of appetite
- - WBC=2,000
The number one clinical sign for Parvo is?
Enteric and organ location of CPV:
- - CPV-1 Myocarditis can develop from infection in-utero or in young pups.
- - All pups infected in litter and will dies or succumb after short episode of dyspnea, crying and retching.
- - Congestive heart failures.
- - Positive fecal ELISA test: (CPV-2a & 2b)
- 1) CITE
- 2) IDEXX -
- (Probe- Canine Parvovirus Antigen Test Kit)
- - CBC: Leukopenia with lymphopenia
- and neutropenia and high PCV.
- - Fecal Examination to rule out Hooks.
- - Serology - High titer 1:10,000 for CPV
* Most common will be the ELISA test *
4 avenues of support for Parvo is:
- 1. Fluids
- 2. Antibodies
- 3. Antiemetic drugs
- 4. Pain killers
- 5. With hold food and water
2 Rule Approach in the Prevention of Parvo:
- 1. Minimize exposure
- 2. Vaccination
Canine Coronavirus Enteritis:
- - RNA virus
- - Mutation of Feline Coronavirus, or TGE.
- - Morbidity is low/high, but mortality is low.
- - Treatment for CCV AND CPV is supportive.
- - Symptoms are diarrhea with clots of blood.
Fluid Therapy Formula:
# X %dehydration X 500 mL
If not able to drink, figure in maintenance replacement during rehydration replacement therapy:
Canine Coronavirus is a member of what family?
Canine Coronavirus belongs to which order?
Epidemiology of CCV:
- - Clinical Signs: Leukopenia and dehydration
- - Symptoms: Diarrhea and vomiting
- - Incubation: 1-4 days
- - Transmission: Fecal contamination
- - Rapidly reproduced with in epithelial cells and accumulates with in the cytoplasm of infected intestinal cells.
What is the #1 clinical sign of CCV?
What is the main treatment for CCV?
Example of Fluid Replacement:
- 50 lb dog not eating with 7% dehydration.
- - Formula: # X %dehydration X 500
- =50 lb X 0.07 X 500
- - Over 12 hr fluid drip at: 1 mL / # / hr
- = 1 X 50 X 12
- = 600 mL
- 1,750 + 600 = 2,350 mL over 12 hours
Diagnoses for CCV:
- - Based on serology or ID of virus in feces.
- - Serology is an antibody-antigen test, but ID requires use of electron microscope; therefore most treatments are initiate due to clinical signs/symptoms only.
Info for Clients with Enteric Infect:
- 1. Vaccinate on regular schedule.
- 2. Puppies can survive with correct treatment.
- 3. Treatment expensive.
- 4. Can infect older dogs if not vaccinated.
- 5. Virus can survive long term.
- 6. Keep dog clean of parasites
Canine Rotavirus Enteritis:
- - RNA virus
- - Persist for prolonged periods in enviornment.
- - Recognized as important enteric pathogens in many animal species and in people.
- - AKA duoviruses, reovirus-like and rota-virus like agents.
Canine Rotavirus Enteritis is a member of which family?
Pathology of Rotavirus:
- - Associated with neonates
- - Diarrhea
- - Not as severe as CPV, or CCV.
- - Necrosis of rotavirus infected cells 18-48 hours after oral infection.
- - Clinical signs result from villious atrophy.
- - RNA virus
- - Surrounded by lipoprotein envelope derived from glycoproteins in cell membrane.
- - Acute, or subacute
- - High fatality rate
- - Doesn't exist well in light
- - Temperate of 50-60*C will kill it in 30 minutes.
- - All symptomatic types of CDV belong to only one serotype.
Canine Distemper is a member of what genus?
Canine Distemper is from what family?
Who is infected by Canine Distemper?
- - Canidae: Dog, fox, wolf & coyote
- - Procyonidae: Red panda, raccoon, kinkajou
- - Mustelidae: Weasel, mink, skunk & ferret
- - Felidae: Cat, lion, leopard & tiger
- - Ailuridae: Panda
- - Ursidae: Bear
- - Viverridae: Fossa & civet
- - Herpestidae: Mongoose & meerkat
Canine Distemper is spread by what?
Aerosol, or droplets exposure
Distemper recovery provides _______.
The #1 animal susceptible to CDV is the _______.
Puppies lose maternal antibodies at _____ weeks of age.
CDV is called _________ in geriatric dogs.
Old Dog Encephalitis
Though CDV is reported during all 12 months of the year in Texas, it's most commonly found in what two seasons?
Spring & Fall
CDV Systemic Infection:
- - After exposure, CDV spreads by aerosol droplets and contacts epithelium of upper respiratory tract.
- - Multiplies in tissue macrophages and spreads in these cells via local lymphatics to tonsils and bronchial lymph nodes with in 24 hours.
- - By 2-4 days postinfection, virus #'s increase in tonsils and pharyngeal and bronchial lymph nodes, but in low amounts.
- - Dogs with cell mediated immunoresponse systems develop antibodies with in 9-14 days and virus clears itself from body.
- - Dogs with poor immunoresponsive systems by day 9-14 postinfection undergo virus spread to tissues.
Symptoms and Clinical signs of CDV:
- - Cold like symptoms: pyrexia, cough, nasal and ocular discharge.
- - Pneumonia
- - Anorexia
- - Vomiting
- - Diarrhea
- - Dehydration
- - Hyperkeratosis of footpads
- - Chorea (convulsions)
- - TIC
Diagnoses of CDV:
- a) Physical exam, symptoms and clin. signs
- b) Serology - rising titers in system
- c) Fluorescent Antibody Test - to detect virus in epithelial cells collected from mucous membranes.
- d) Inclusion bodies
- e) Viral isolation
____% of maternal antibodies transferred inutero to puppies.
____% of maternal antibodies come from first milk with in 24-48 hours.
____ is the most common cause of seizures in dogs.
Old Dog Encephalitis:
- - Chronic distemper encephalitis (ODE)
- - Ataxia, compulsive movements, hypermetria
- - May occur with out history of signs related to CDV.
- - Convulsions and neuromuscular twitching (chorea) do not seem to occue with ODE.
- - Not infectious
4 types of Canine Viral Respiratory Dieases:
- - Canine Adenovirus Infection
- - Canine Parainfluenza SV-5
- - Canine Herpesvirus & Reovirus I
- - Canine Coronavirus
An upper respiratory infection affects the _____ and a lower respiratory infection affects the _____.
Infectious Canine Hepatitis:
- Etiology: Canine Adenovirus Type I
- Attack Location: Liver Cells
- Side Effect: Corneal edema
Canine Adenovirus Type II attack location is where?
Pathogenesis of CAV-I (ICH)
- - Replicated paranchymal cells of liver.
- - Death reported in more severe cases the first few months of life and dogs as old as 13 years.
- - By 10 days postinfection, virus is only in kidneys and is excreted in urine for at least 6-9 months.
Infectious Canine Hepatitis Facts:
- - Worldwide contagious disease
- - Congestion of mucous membranes, severe depression, leukopenia and prolonged bleeding.
- - Clotting time correlated with severity of illness.
Canine Adenovirus Type II symptom:
- - Paroxymal cough ("goose honk")
- - Cough worsens on exercise
4 primary causes of Bronchitis:
- 1) CAV-II
- 2) Parainfluenza (CpiV2)
- 3) Corona
- 4) Bordatella
Canine Acidophil Cell Hepatitis:
- - Distinct from ICH and CAV-II
- - Virus
- - Etiology unknown
- - Clin. sign vague
- - Terminal signs effect mental state & result in coma.
- - Lab abnormalities includes episodic increases in ALT & ALP
- - Reported primarily in Great Britain.
Terminal signs associated with Canine Acidophil Cell Hepatitis:
- - Abdominal distention
- - Seizures
- - Coma
- - Mental status issues
Canine Parainfluenza Virus (CpiV2):
- Etiology: Paranfluenza Virus
- Attack Site: Epithelium of respiratory tract
Kennel Cough Complex:
- - Parainfluenza virus (CpiV-2)
- - Canine Adenovirus II
- - Bordatella bronchiseptica
- - Canine Corona Virus
Parainfluenza (CpiV-2) Facts:
- - Highly contagious airborne
- - Most common virus isolated from respiratory tract with ITB.
- - Single stranded RNA virus
- - Paramyxoviridae
- - Spread from throat of dogs up to 8 days.
- - Multiplies in epithelium of respiratory tract, such as the cilia in it.
Viral Induced Tracheobronchitis, or Laryngotracheitis: What to tell the Client
- - Self limiting and will take 2-3 weeks
- - Treat symptoms
- - No exercise for 2-3 weeks (stay cool)
- - In the future, make sure vaccination for lower respiratory disease is given 2-3 weeks prior to boarding to prevent spread.
Infectious Tracheobronchitis (ITB) is AKA ______ and ______.
Cpiv-2 and Bordatella bronchiseptica
Infectious Laryngo-tracheitis is AKA as _____ and _____.
CAV-II and lesser CAV-I
Bordatella bronchiseptica nasal vaccine produces an ____ response, while the parenteral vaccine produces an _____ response.
Canine Herpes Virus Infection:
- - Worldwide
- - Biologic and pathogenic properties similar to herpes.
- - Upper respiratory and/or urogenital with abortions, or failed pregnancies.
- - Newborns can get CHV from inutero, contact with litter mates, oronasal secretions of dam, or fomite exposure.
What is the most common cause of abortions in cats?
Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR)
- - LVT's and vets can be exposed from hypersalivation on dental checks.
- - All warm blooded animals are susceptible.
- - Virus
- - Always fatal
- - Neurological disease
- - Spread through saliva and open wounds.
- - Enzootic
- - Most common in carnivores and New World bats.
- - More reported cases in cats these days.
Symptoms of Rabies are:
- - Hypersalivation
- - Descending paralysis
- - Change in voice
- - Change in attitude
When was the last reported case of Rabies in a dog and cat in Harris county?
_____ make up 90% of rabies cases in Harris County.
Why are cats more often reported with rabies?
- 1) More cats kept as pets.
- 2) Only 6% of cats in Harris County are vaccinated against rabies.
______ are the #1 wildlife animal with rabies.
(Followed by skunks, bats and foxes)
Where did Rabies come from?
- - 500 BC
- - Africa
- - Brought to America through European colonization
- - Found in 1753 in Virginia
- - Found in 1899 on the West Coast
The last reported human case of rabies in Harris County was when, where and from what?
May 2006 in Humble, TX from a bat bite.
History of Rabies:
- - 18th century severe outbreak in E. Europe
- - Bizarre treaments: immersion in sea, gun
- powder on wound then
- lighting it, etc..
- - In France, those with rabies were shot, poisoned, strangled, etc..
Rabies is AKA _____
Who helped combat the severe outbreak of rabies in E. Europe during the 18th century?
Louis Pasteur and Sir Alfred Jenner
When was the first successful treatment for rabies used?
How was the rabies vaccine created?
From the saliva of rabid dogs in France and then passed the virus through the brain tissue of a rabbit to make a modified live virus for use on dogs.
What is the etiology of rabies?
What family does rabies come from?
Why is rabies also called hydrophobia?
Because of the descending paralysis starting in the nose and ending in the diaphragm.
How does rabies cause death?
Through pyrexia (suffocation)
If a rabid dog were to bite another dog, then it would be known as ____ rabies.
If a rabid skunk were to bite a dog, then it would be known as ____ rabies.
- - Canine Rabies
- - Skunk Rabies
Where does the Rabies virus go once it's in the body?
- It goes to the CNS, then to the salivary glands.
How is Rabies transmitted?
- - Saliva (bite wound)
- - Inhalation (also with bats)
- - Oral (consumption)
When is bat season?
Late summer, and early fall.
When was the last skunk rabies outbreak in TX?
Cowboys would get attacked by them at night when trying to sleep.
Gray Fox Rabies:
- - Sabine County, TX
- - 1946
- - Spread southwest.
The last flareup of rabies in TX was in the _____.
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program:
- - Program designed to prevent the spread of rabies.
- - Developed by Texas A&M Kingsville
- - Involves oral rabies vaccine dropped around the wilderness so wild animals, such as coyotes, foxes, skunks, etc can be vaccinated against rabies.
The first domestic dog/coyote rabies case occurred in ____ in _____ county.
What are the 3 stages of Rabies?
- A) Prodromal Stage:
- - Incubation
- - Change in behavior
- - Descending paralysis
- B) Excitatory Stage:
- - Furious/Dumb/Stupor
- - May appear hyperactive
- - Or attack inanimate objects.
- C) Paralytic Stage:
- - Impending death
- - Ascending paralysis of hind limbs,
- eventually leading to respiratory
- paralysis and death.
Incubation period for rabies is ____ weeks.
But can take up to 14-18 months.
Diagnoses of Rabies:
- 1) Clinical signs
- - Mandibular and lingual paralysis
- 2) Fluorescent Antibody Test
- - Replaces Negro Body test
- - Cheaper
- 3) Negri Body Demonstation
- - Demonstration of cytoplasm of neurons
- 4) Polymerase Chain Reacton
- - Before death
2 diseases that cause animals to stargaze?
If animal bites someone, its isolated for how many days to make sure it is not rabid?
Directions for shipping heads:
- 1. Avoid damaging brain.
- 2. Prepare immediately after death.
- 3. Head should be immediately chilled at
- 4. Use two containers:
- - Immediate container
- - Outer container
What specific form do you need to ship a head out for rabies testing?
ID of Health Form No. G-172
TX Law Requirements for Rabies:
- - Vaccinate pets after 3 months and before 4 months of age.
- - The vaccine must be administered by a licensed veterinarian, or under the supervision of a licensed veterinarian.
Texas Department of Health 3/7/3
- Pets must be vaccinated against rabies between 3 and 4 months of age by a licensed veterinarian.
- The animal must receive a booster with in the 12 month interval following initial vaccination.
- Every domestic dog and cat must be revaccinated against rabies at a minimum of at least once every 3 years with a rabies vaccine licensed by the USDA.
Who to call concerning rabies"
- Bureau of Laboratories
- Texas Department of Health
- 1100 West 49th St.
- Austin, TX, 78756
- 1 800 252 8163
- City of Houston
- Health and Human Services
- 1115 South Brazenwood
Who can we vaccinated against rabies?
- - Dog
- - Cat
- - Horse
- - Sheep
- - Cattle
- - Human
Harris County Law for Rabies:
- Animals are considered vaccinated if they receive vaccine with in the past 12 months, or received 2 rabies vaccines with in 12 month of each other and the time since most recent vaccination has not exceeded the manufacturers recommendations.
Rule 573.51 Rabies Control
- Each veterinarian issues a certificate of rabies vaccination and keeps copy for up to 5 years after vaccination.
Animal Control Officer:
- Person employed by Harris County Public Health and Environmental Services through the Veterinary Public Health Division
- Facility that keeps, or legally impounds strays.
- Acts by animal that causes injury to person.
- Abrasion, scratch, puncture, tear, piercing of skin that causes bleeding caused by animal.
Exposed to Rabies:
Any dog, or cat bitten, or has fought, or interacted with animal known, or suspected of having rabies.
When quarantining an animal suspected of having rabies, the facility it's housed it should have:
- 1) Absolute security
- 2) Isolation
- 3) Daily observation
A quarantine must be in one of the following locations:
- 1) Animal shelter approved by TX Department of Health
- 2) Veterinary clinic operated by a licensed veterinarian
- 3) Owners home if approved by Local Health Authority
Only the _____ can grant permission for an animal to be quarantined at home.
Local Health Authority
Requirements for quarantining an animal in an owners home:
- - Secure enclosure approved by LRCA
- - Animal is currently vaccinated
- - Vet, or local authority must observe animal first and last day of quarantine.
- - Animal must not stray at time of potential exposure.
Unvaccinated livestock should be ____ when bitten by a rabid animal.
Unvaccinated dogs, cat, and ferrets should be ____, ____, or ____ if bitten by rabid animal.
- - Euthanized
- - Vaccinated
- - Isolated
If you vaccinate an animal that was bitten by a rabid animal, you would do what?
Administer 1 mL of rabies vaccination immediately and isolate for 90 days, giving booster vaccinations during 3rd and 8th weeks of isolation
When a known rabid animal bites a vaccinated animal:
- - Animal receives 1 mL of rabies vaccine.
- - Isolated for 45 days
When an animal bites a person, follow these precautions:
- a) Identify and confine the biting dog, or cat for observation.
- b) Wash wound, while wearing gloves, with soap and hot water.
- c) Call family physician. Go to emergency room if you cant reach your doctor.
Animals at low risk and high risk for rabies:
- - Rodent
- - Rabbit
- - Opossum
- - Bat
- - Raccoon
- - Skunk
- - Fox
- - Coyote
- - Other wild carnivores.
Who is in charge in rabies cases?
- 1. Local Health Authority
- 2. Animal control officer, Municipal health authority, Peace officer, etc..
____ enforce the Rabies Control Act of the TX Health and Safety Code.
Local Health Authority
Unvaccinated/Vaccinated animal that bites a person:
- Unvaccinated: Quarantine 10 days
- Vaccinated: Euthanize, or vaccinate and isolate for 90 days with booster at 3 and 8 weeks.
Who is the local rabies control authority for Harris County?
HCPHES Veterinary Public Health (VPH)