Clinical Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1
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How does the anatomy of a muscle or bone differ from its physiology? Which describes appearance and location and which describes function?
Anatomy deals with the form and structure of a muscle or bone. Physiology deals with their function.
How might abnormalities in an animal’s anatomy or physiology have a negative impact on its health and well-being?
The functions of the parts of an animal’s body are extremely interrelated. Therefore an abnormality with the anatomy or physiology of one part can affect other parts.
How does each of the anatomic planes of reference (sagittal, median, transverse, and dorsal) divide a cow’s body?
- The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right parts, which are not necessarily equal.
- The median plane runs lengthwise down the center of the animal’s body and divides it into equal left and right halves.
- The transverse plane divides the body into cranial and caudal parts, which are not necessarily equal.
- The dorsal plane divides the animal’s body at a right angle to the sagittal or transverse plane and divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts, which are not necessarily equal.
If you are facing a cat head-on, is its left ear on your left or right side?
Why must the term rostral be used instead of cranial to describe structures on a hedgehog’s head, but the term caudal works just fine?
Caudal always means toward the tail end of the body. The cranium is part of the head, therefore the term cranial loses its meaning. Rostral specifically means toward the tip or nose.
If your left hand is on a goat’s belly and your right hand is on its back, which hand is on the animal’s dorsal surface and which is on its ventral surface?
The left hand is on the ventral surface, and the right hand is on the dorsal surface.
The next time you see a dog, differentiate between the medial and lateral surfaces of one of its elbows and the proximal and distal ends of one of its legs.
The medial surface is toward the center line of the animal’s body, and the lateral surface is on the outer side of the elbow. The proximal part of the leg is closer to the body relative to, for example, the toes, which are located distally.
If you insert a hypodermic needle into a horse’s muscle to give an injection, which end of the needle (tip or hub) is located deep in the muscle and which end is located superficially?
The tip is deep and the hub is superficial.
What surface of a hamster’s front leg is in contact with the ground when it is walking normally? What surface of the hind leg?
The palmar surface of the front leg and the plantar surface of the hind leg are touching the ground.
According to the principle of bilateral symmetry, single structures in the body are located on or near which anatomical plane of reference?
Where is the pleura found? The peritoneum?
The pleura is found in the thoracic cavity and the peritoneum is in the abdominal cavity.
What is the difference between the visceral and parietal layer of the pleura and peritoneum?
The visceral layer covers the organs and the parietal layer lines the whole cavity.
Describe how a cell, a tissue, an organ, and a system differ in an animal’s body.
A cell is the basic functional unit of life. Specialized cells grouped together form tissues. Organs are formed by groups of tissues that work together for a common purpose. Systems are groups of organs involved in a common set of activities.
What are the four basic tissues that make up an animal’s body?
Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
How does the normal anatomy and physiology of cells in an animal’s body impact the health of the animal as a whole? How does the normal anatomy and physiology of the animal’s body as a whole impact the health of its cells?
The health of cells affects the health of tissues, which affects the health of organs, which affects the health of systems, which affects the health of the whole body. Similarly, the health of the body affects the health of the systems, which affects the health of the organs, which affects the health of the tissues, which affects the health of cells.
How do homeostatic mechanisms influence the health of an animal?
As conditions inside and outside change, homeostatic mechanisms influence the health of an animal by helping to maintain a fairly constant internal environment inside the body, making life possible.
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