ISCI 2002 Exam 1

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ISCI 2002 Exam 1
2014-09-10 17:56:41

Exam 1
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  1. What is science?
    A system of knowledge (a way ofknowing) covering general truths oroperation of general laws

    Knowledge is obtained or tested throughscientific method ( a key hallmark ofscience as opposed to other systems ofknowledge)

    How do you know what you is a way of answering that question.
  2. What are the characteristics of science?
    • Guided by natural law
    • Must explain what is observed withreference to natural laws
    • Tested against empirical world, i.e. sensesor extension of senses
    • Conclusions are tentative pendingadditional information (something oftenoverlooked or misunderstood)
    • Reproducible and peer-reviewed
    • Potentially falsifiable, self-correcting Cumulative and progressive
  3. What is the difference between science and pseudoscience?
    • Psuedoscience uses the vocabulary of science to legitimize unscientific claims
    • Just calling it science doesn’t it make it science

    Examples: Astrology, Crystal / Magnetic Healing, Creation “science” / Intelligent design, ESP/Precognition/Psychokinesis, Ghost hunters Etc., etc., etc.
  4. What is a fact?
    An observation that has been repeatedly confirmed.
  5. What is a hypothesis?
    A testable statement about the natural world that can be used to build more complex inferences and explanations.

    • Examples: Trout avoid warm waters.
    • Earthquake occurrence is a random process.
  6. What is a law?
    A descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under stated conditions

    Example: Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
  7. What is a Theory? What is the difference between the way scientists use the word theory and the way most people mean when they use the word theory?
    • A well substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world (that can incorporate scientific facts, laws and tested hypotheses).
    • (A lot of evidence to support the explanation)

    • Is a logical structure that ties together another wise bewildering array of observations.
    • Has strong predictive ability (Using the theory we predict the outcome of a future experiment or event.
    • If the theory predicts the outcome correctly, it is valid in those circumstances.
    • If not, we need to refine the theory.) NEVER PROVEN TRUE; only proven false
  8. What is a fundamental quantity and the three we need to know?
    • Length
    • Mass
    • Time
    • (Electric Charge)
    • Some others we won’t worry about
  9. What are the SI standard units for fundamental quantities? How are they defined, and what are the abbreviations for these units?
    • Length - meters (m) Speed of Light
    • Mass - kilograms (kg) Platinum cylinder in Paris
    • Time - seconds (s) based on the vibrations of a Cesiumatom (atomic clocks); incredibly accurate
  10. Why are these units so important?
    For measurement?

    But our senses are inaccurate and easy to fool, sowe require measurement systems that arestandardized and recognized by everyone
  11. What are the common metric prefixes?
    • Metric Prefixes
    • If the prefix is: Multiply the basic unit by:
    • giga- billion (thousand million)
    • mega- million
    • kilo- thousand
    • hecto- hundred
    • deka- ten
    • If the prefix is: Divide the basic unit by:
    • deci- ten
    • centi- hundred
    • milli- thousand
    • micro- million
    • nano- billion
  12. What are derived quantities?
    • area - square meter - m2
    • volume - cubic meter - m3
    • speed, velocity - meter per second - m/s acceleration - meter per second squared - m/s2
    • ETC.
  13. What is density? What are its units?
    • Mass per unit volume 
    • p "rho" (density) = m / v (kg/m3)
  14. What is area? What is volume?
    • Area-
    • square - l^2
    • Rectangle - l x w
    • circle - pi(r^2)
    • (circumference) c = 2pi(r)

    • Volume -
    • cube - l^3
    • shoebox - l x w x h
    • sphere - 4/3 pi(r^3)
    • Right cylinder - pi(r^2)h
  15. How is a liter defined? What is the relationship between liters, cubic centimeters, and grams?
    • Liter is defined metric unit for measuring liquid or gas.
    • 1000cm^3 = 1 liter (of liquid) = 1 kilogram (1000 grams)
  16. What is a measurement?
    size, length, or amount of something
  17. What is the study of kinematics?
    The study of motion
  18. What is motion?
    In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time and its reference point. Motion is typically described in terms of displacement, direction, velocity, acceleration and time.
  19. What is speed, average speed and instantaneous speed?
    Speed - is the distance an object travels divided by the time it takes to travel that distance.

    Average Speed - is a measure of the distance traveled in a given period of time; it is sometimes referred to as the distance per time ratio.

    Instantaneous Speed - The speedometer of a car reveals information about the instantaneous speed of your car. It shows your speed at a particular instant in time.
  20. What is the difference between a scalar and a vector?
    A vector is a quantity with both magnitude (strength) and direction. Like a force having a strength in pounds and a direction. Or a wind having magnitude (in mph) and direction (Northeast). A scalar has only magnitude. Like the length of a segment or amount of peanuts in a jar. Scalars are just numbers.
  21. What is the difference between distance and displacement?
    Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion.

    Displacement is a vector quantity that refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's overall change in position.
  22. What is the difference between speed and velocity?
    Speed is a scalar quantity that refers to "how fast an object is moving."

    Velocity is a vector quantity that refers to "the rate at which an object changes its position."
  23. What are the units for speed? What are the units for velocity?
    Both - meters per second
  24. How can I change velocity without changing speed?
    Velocity includes both speed and direction, so velocity will change when an object changes direction while maintaining it's speed. An example is a car at constant speed around a curve.
  25. What is acceleration?
    A change in velocity
  26. What are the units for acceleration?
    m/s^2 (meters per second squared)
  27. What are the ways to cause acceleration?
    • Increase velocity vector
    • Decrease velocity vector
    • Change direction of velocity vector
  28. What is the acceleration due to gravity near the surface of the Earth? What is its value?
    If gravity is the only force acting on an object, then we find the object will accelerate at a rate of 9.8m/s2 down toward the center of the Earth. In fact, all objects will fall at this rate if the air does not act to slow them down.
  29. If I drop a bowling ball and a marble off a five story building, which one gets to the bottom first? Why?
    Because while a larger mass has a proportionally greater inertia (resistance to movement) than a smaller one, the pull of gravity also affects it that much more. The net result is to exactly cancel out the forces, allowing all objects within a given gravitational field (regardless of their mass) to fall at the same rate... unless there's another force, like air resistance on a feather, to tip the balance.
  30. What is inertia? Who came up with the idea?
    The natural state of matter - is to be at rest or is to be in motion 

  31. What is Newton's First Law of Motion?
    An object at rest will remain at rest or 

    An object in motion with constant velocity will remain in motion unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force.
  32. What is a force? What are the three ways to define a force? (Not sure)
    A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another object. Whenever there is an interaction between two objects, there is a force upon each of the objects. When the interactionceases, the two objects no longer experience the force. Forces only exist as a result of an interaction.
  33. Why is Newton's First Law of Motion a law?
    Because nothing can move without some source of force.
  34. Why is Newton's second law a result of the first?
    The acceleration produced on a body by a force is proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

    If Newton’s first law of motion tells you when a force is acting, then the second law ofmotion tells you what the force does when it acts
  35. What is Newton's second law of motion?
    In words: The greater the force, the greater the acceleration; but the more massive the object being acted on by a given force, the smaller the acceleration.

  36. What is a Newton? What are other units of force?
    The unit of force displayed on an object.

    weight and gravity
  37. Is force a vector or scalar? why?
    As learned in an earlier unit, a vector quantity is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. To fully describe the force acting upon an object, you must describe both the magnitude (size or numerical value) and the direction.
  38. What is weight? What is the unit of weight?
    As learned in an earlier unit, a vector quantity is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. To fully describe the force acting upon an object, you must describe both the magnitude (size or numerical value) and the direction.

  39. What is Newton's 3rd law of motion?
    Whenever one object exerts a force on another object, the second exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first object.