Intro to A&P
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subdivisions of anatomy:
- microscopic (cellular)
- developmental (fetus)
subdivisions of physiology:
- operation of organ systems
- cellular/molecular events
What does a structures function depend on?
what are the levels of structural organization?
chemical > cellular > tissue > organ > organ system > organism
What are the necessary life functions?
- maintaining internal balance
- responsiveness to environment
What are survival needs?
- normal body temp
- atmospheric pressure
Why is water needed?
provides environment for chemical reactions
Why are nutrients needed?
energy and cell building
Why is oxygen needed?
Why is a normal body temp needed?
necessary for chemical reactions to occur at life-sustaining rates
Why is atmospheric pressure needed?
proper breathing and gas exchange
What does homeostasis do?
keeps everything in balance
How does homeostasis work?
- stimulus produces a change
- change is detected by a receptor
- receptor sends info to the control center
- control center notifies the effector
- effector helps the system get back into homeostasis
What are examples of positive feedback?
- blood clotting
What drives homeostasis?
What does negative feedback do?
tries to shut off or stop a response
What does the plasma membrane do?
provides structure and regulates what goes in and out of the cell
What is the plasma membrane made up of?
- a phospholipid bilayer
What do the proteins in the phospholipid bilayer do?
- let things in
- let things out
- allow changes
What does the cytoplasm do?
keeps the integrity of the cell (gives it shape)
What do mitochondria do?
require oxygen to make cellular energy (ATP)
What does the nucleus do?
- creates RNAs
- synthesizes proteins
- control center of cell
What does the endoplasmic reticulum do?
assists in protein synthesis
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
- packages and transports what's made in the nucleus
- destroys incorrect proteins
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