Exam 1 study guide
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What are the three cycles of the menstruation feedback system?
What is the average length of a menstrual cycle?
What is day 1 of the menstrual cycle?
First day of bleeding
What is the average duration of the menstrual cycle
3-6 days (5 days is the average)
What is the average blood loss during the menses?
20-80 ml (50ml is the average)
What are the three components of uterine discharge?
- Epithelial cells
What happens during the hypothalamic-pituitary cycle?
- Low blood levels of estrogen and progesterone stimulate the hypothalamus to secrete GnRH.
- GnRH stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH
- FSH stimulates development of ovarian graafian follicles and their production of estrogen
- GnRH triggers anterior pituitary to release LH (peaks at day 13-14)
- Ovum is expelled and if not fertilized, the cycle repeats
Gonadotropin releasing hormone; stimulates anterior pituitary secretion of FSH & LH
Follicle stimulating hormone; stimulates development of ovarian graafian follicles and their production of estrogen.
When does LH levels peak?
What occurs during the ovarian cycle?
- Follicles mature in each ovary under the influence of FAH and estrogen.
- Oocyte is realeased during surge of LH & descends to corpus luteum
- After ovulation, estrogen levels decrease.
- Corpus luteum reaches peak of functionality 8 days after ovulation (secreting esrogen and progesterone)
- If ovum is not fertilized and implanted, the functional layer of the endometrium is shed (menstruation)
Withdrawal bleeding during the ovarian cycle that mostly goes unnoticed.
What is the duration of the luteal phase?
It begins immediately after ovulation and ends with the start of menstruation
What are the four phases of the endometrial cycle?
- Menstrual phase
- Proliferative phase
- Secretory phase
- Ischemic phase
What occurs during the menstrual phase?
Shedding of the functional 2/3 of the endometrium is initiated by periodic vasoconstriction in the upper layers of the endometrium.
What occurs during the proliferatve phase?
Period of rapid growth of the endometrial layer lasting from about the fifth day to the time of ovulation. (Takes 4 days). This depends on estrogen stimulation derived from ovarian follicles.
What occurs during the secretory phase?
An edematous, vascular, functional endometrium becomes apparent (from the day of ovulation to about 3 days before the next menstrual period).
What occurs during the ischemic phase?
Blood supply to the functional endometrium is blocked and necrosis occurs.
What is a woman's BBT (basal body temperature) before ovulation.
At the time of ovulation, cervical mucus is thin, cleary and stretchy like egg whites.
Lower abdominal pain that coincides with ovulation
When does implantation occur?
7-10 days after ovulation
What are prostaglandins (PGs)?
- Oxygenated fatty acids classified as hormones that are produced in most organs including the uterus. They affects mooth muscle contractility and modulation of hormonal activities.
- Ovulation: increase w/ LH surge or ovum gets trapped
- Fertility: semen more motile
- Cervical: causes dilation
- Menstruation: sloughing of endometrium
- Labor/abortion onset
What aree the five categories of families?
- Married-blended families
- Cohabiting parents
- Single-parent families
- No parent families
What are the two types of nuclear families?
- Married-parent families
- Married-blended families
Which type of family structure is most common with Hispanic families?
Which type of family structure is most vulnerable economically and socially?
Infant from birth-28 days
What 6 things must occur before a baby can be discharged?
- Establish respiratons
- Adjust to circulatory changes
- Regulate temperature
- Ingest/digest nutrients
- Eliminate waste products
How many arteries and veins does the umbilical cord have?
The umbilical cord has 2 arteries and one vein.
What occurs during the first period of reactivity during the transition to extrauterine life?
HR increase to 160-180 then decreases to baseline of 100-120, irregular RR of 60-80 BPM
What happens during the second period of reactivity to extrauterineife
Tachycardia and tachypnea occurs, meconium passed
- 1st stool, sticky, stretchy, tar-like and green
- Formed from amniotic fluid, intestinal secretions, and mucosal cells
How long do the iron stores in the infant last?
What is the product derived from a breakdown in Hgb from dead RBC
How long does it take for an infant to void for the first time,?
24 hours after birth
What should you monitor if the infant is jittery?
Serum glucose levil
cheesy white substance that covers the skin and acts like a protectant
Broken blood vessels
Area beneath sheath that connects frontal and occipital muscles, forms the inner surface of scalp. (Associated w/ vacuum)
Peeling, post mature infants
Common on back and buttocks
- "stork bite"Most common vascular birthmark
- Made of dialated capillaries
- Blanch with pressure and more prominent with crying
- Bright, red, raised, soft lobulated tumor
- Caused by dialated capillaries with endothelial proliferation
- Gradually increase, then decrease in size
- "Flea bite"
- Benugn rash found on 70% ofinfants
- Small white or yellow papules or vesicles with an erythmateous base
- Disappears and reappears in different location
- Multiple or small, white papules
- Usually on brow, cheeks and nose
- Caused by sebaceous gland secretion
Urethra located on the shaft of the penis
Fluid between periosteum &brain
What are the six sleep-wake states?
- Deep sleep
- Light sleep
- Quiet alert
- Active alert
What is the optimal state of arousal
Quiet alert state
The ability to move between sleep-wake states
What will heat loss in an infant cause
Acidosis and increase the level of free fatty acids leadig to cold stress
What does the APGAR mneumonic indicate?
- Grimace (cry)
- Actvity or muscle tone
- Respiratory rate
Which APGAR score indicates severe distress?
Which APGAR score indicates moderate distresss?
Which APGAR score indicates that the infant is good to go?
What is the average pulse of the newborn.
- 120-160 (calm)
- 80-100 (sleeping)
- <180 (crying)
Tachycardia in the infant
- > or = 180 beats/min
- Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
Bradycardia in infants
< or = 80 beats/min
What is the normal range for respiration rates in infants?
40-60 breaths /min
What is the average weight of an infant?
What is the average blood pressure for infants ?
60-80/ 40-50 mmHg
Born before completion of 37 weeks
34-36 (6/7) weeks
Born between beginning of week 37-42 weeks
Born after 42 weeks
Individual having two copies of the same allele for a given trait
Individual having two different alleles for a trait
Genetic makeup of an individual
Apparent but one copy of allele is present
Expressed when two copies of allele is present
Pictorial analysis of an individuals chromosomes; body tissue (usually WBCs or fetal cells from amniotic fluid)
Union between a normal gamete and one that is missing a chromosomes
Replication of body cells; DNA replicated and then divided.
Germ cells divide, decrease chromosomes by half; gametes are produced
Perforations that allow enzymes to escape and enables penetration of ovum
Where does fertilization occurs?
16 cell solid ball, travels 3 days through tube
Condition present at birth
When are fetal movements detectable by the mother?
Respiratory and digest tracts; abdominal organs
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