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  1. India
    Prehistory-before writing-1st Culture
  2. Dravidians
    Inhabited Indus River
  3. Rivers
    Major culture of trading
  4. What are the two main cities for Dravidians
    Harappa and Mohenjo Daro- Advanced cities- grid system- easy for trade
  5. Who had no writing- Government- merchant style
    Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
  6. What city was on a dried up part of Indus
  7. What is Sarasvati
  8. With Trading with Mesopotamians
    used bronze to trade with Dravidians and used seals/art to seal up documents
  9. Samples of art
    Torso from Harappa-multi arm toys
  10. Another sample of art
    Male statue from Mohenjo Daro- typical rep of a Dravidian-shorter, darker skinned people, prob ruler or high priest- well dressed, tree foils on cloths, head band, beard-perfectly trimed
  11. Aryan Invasions-1800-1500BCE
    Ancient people from Caspian Sea
  12. What did Aryan's do
    Invaded and took over India and push culture over to the Ganges River
  13. What did Aryan's look like
    Tall, Light skinned, sharper nose
  14. What did Aryan's bring
    Writing-sanskirt-no more art
  15. 1500-1000 BCE- Verdic age(religious) Vedas book written...what are the 4 Vedas
    1 Rig Veda-oldest 2. Sama Veda around 1000 BCE 3. Yajur Veda around 700 BCE 4. Atharva Veda around 200 BCE
  16. Rig Veda
    Hymns about gods- hundreds of gods
  17. 4 Rig Veda?
    • 1. Indra-god of rain and heaven
    • 2. Angi- God of fire
    • 3. Varuna- God of ocean
    • 4. Surya- God of Sun
  18. Soma
    God of soma plant(drug) Juice used in sacrifice
  19. Soma Veda-
    Hymns for sacrifice
  20. Yajur Veda
    Not hymn- now a manual for sacrifice
  21. Atharva Verda
    Incantations(spells) of a metaphysical nature(medicine Doctor)
  22. How helped create a foundation for Hinduism
    Veda hymns
  23. 1000-600 BCE Epic Age
    New Social Structure emerges and intertwinds with religion
  24. What new social structure emerges with religion
    Caste system
  25. Caste systems
    • 1. Top Caste- Brahmins- Priest and scholars-no women- keepers of tradition
    • 2. Kshatriyans-could be women- Warriors and rulers- cant be Brahmins because they fight.
    • 3. Vaisya-can be women- all types of people lawyers, merchants, artisans, collar
    • 4. Shudra- Bottom society- street sweepers-butchers-fisherman-poor people-out casts.
    • Bottom of Shudra's- untouchables-scavengers
  26. Top Brahmins
    Samanas- can do Yoga and look back into there past lives. Male only Brahmins- leave society and become wandering Monks there Ascetics- life of self denial
  27. What are part of the religion developing Hinduism
  28. After Caste- in Religion- What was the name of the new set of books written
  29. Upanishads
    Set of books that discuess how a soul of a person can communicate with brahman- they are extensions of the veda hynm's
  30. Who is the Supreme force in universe
  31. How to communicate with the Brahman- 10 ways
    • 1. Atman
    • 2. Samsara
    • 3. Karma
    • 4. Dharma
    • 5. Ahimsa
    • 6. Yoga
    • 7. Moksha
    • 8. Artha
    • 9. Sutr
    • 10. Kama
  32. Atman
    Soul- idea of the reincarnated- permenant self- is what you need to get to next life- stage of caste.
  33. Samsara
    constant cycle of life-death-rebirth-reincarnation
  34. Karma
    Law of cosmic cause and effect
  35. Dharma
    Ones own work or duty
  36. Ahimsa
    Deep respect for all living things- all have some type of Atman/soul
  37. Yoga
    Meditation for physical, mental, spiritual control
  38. Moksha
    • the release from samsara- soul wont be reincarnated any more- COMMUNICATE with Brahman---GOAL of Hinduism
    • Only Samanas can reach moksha
  39. Artha
    Wealth- spiritual and material
  40. Sutra
    Laws of proper action
  41. Kama
    Sensuality- that does not implede one's goals-having more kids to grow their religion
  42. What are the 4 stages in Hindu life
    • 1. Student
    • 2. Householder
    • 3. Hemit
    • 4. Wandering Ascetic phase
  43. What 2 caste are still part of today
    Brahmins and Bottom of Shudra's untouchables- all others stopped in the 50's
  44. Student
    dweller in anothers house-your job is to learn all about what it takes to be in your caste--get a Guru-if can't afford one learn from your grand parents
  45. Householder
    dweller in ones own house- living proper life if they have been teught well- take over family business
  46. Hemit phase
    Recommended not required- dweller in forrest/small hut- for grandparents-kids take over now and they move to b hut- be Guru's prepare for next life
  47. Wandering Ascetic phase
    dwellers in mountains- male Brahmins-Samanas
  48. What are 3 ways to release from pain of existence
    • 1. way of works
    • 2. Way of Knowledge(Jnana)
    • 3. ways of devotion(Bhakti)
  49. Way of works
    Focus on Yoga control and Ahimsa (deep respect for all living things)
  50. Way of Knowledge(Jnana)
    Study Philosophical debate and deep meditation-for selected caste
  51. Ways of devotion(Bhakti)
    Faith in "Divine" characters and in good deeds/rewards
  52. 600-200 BCE Religious Crossovers for Hinduism
    • Writings emerge
    • hinduism in "devine" forms
    • decents of Brahman
  53. Avatars
    Decents 3 main decents
  54. 3 main avatars decents
    • 1. Brahma
    • 2. Vishnu
    • 3. Shiva
    • Deals with cosmic creation and destruction
  55. Brahma
    Creator- multi faced creation- Brahma opens"egg" yolk becomes primardial mountain
  56. Mt. Meru
    All life springs from
  57. Primarial
    Where all life springs from
  58. Vishnu
    The Preserver-more important- watches over existence- most other avatars desend from him
  59. Shiva
    • Mal, but joins the female for apocalyptic form
    • "destroyer" puts egg back together and destroys universe with a dance of fire
  60. Shiva waits and meditates/yoga. very wise avatar
    Shiva- at Mt. Shiving near source of the Ganges river.
  61. Female Avatar
    Devi- descents from her are all females
  62. Avatars under Vishnu
    • Krishna and many others
    • 8th great avatar
    • Benevolent
  63. Avatar of Shiva
    • Remover of obstacles
    • Ganesha-son
    • elephant headed avatar
    • benelolent avatar, protective
  64. Ganesha rides on a ?
  65. How many avatars are there of Brahman
    330 million
  66. Religion
    Academically- monotheistic-ONE god-Brahman but practiced as Polytheistic
  67. Writings emerge
    Epics-long story usually about a hero- has an historical background...must be accurate/believable but main character does not have to exist.
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