Card Set Information
group test 1
Whats special about epithelial tissue?
high in cellular content
unique contact points
supported by connective tissue
How is epithelial tissue classified?
number of layers
shape of cells
What is simple epithelial tissue?
single cell layer
allows for diffusion
What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
may have cilia or goblet cells
What is stratified epithelial tissue?
multiple cell layers
regenerate from the bottom cells upward
: support, protection
What is stratified squamous epithelium?
basal cells are cubodial or columnar
surface cells are flattened or squamous
most dominant kind
: protects underlying tissue
: esophagus, mouth
What is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
surface cells are full of keratin and are dead
make up the epidermis
What is stratified cubodial and columnar epithelium?
less common and less sophisticated
found in the digestive tract
most have sweat glands
What is transitional epithelium?
resembles stratified squamous and stratified cubodial
: stretches and allows distention of urinary system
: urinary system
What are epithelial glands?
: secrete a specific product
: water-based, protein, lipid or steroid rich substance
: water, blood, sweat
released directly into extracellular space
Unicellular exocrine glands:
have goblet cells that secrete mucus
multi-cellular exocrine glands:
can have simple or compound duct structures
can be tubular or alveolar/acinar secretory structures
: mesenchymal cells
: ground substance, fibers, cells
Major classes of Connective Tissue:
What is in the ground substance of CT?
cell adhesion molecules
What does the ground substance do for CT?
contains fibers of the specific CT
What do fibers do for CT?
provide support for CT
works with the ground substance (rebar or scaffolding)
What are the common types of fibers in CT?
What are the properties of connective tissue?
limited or non-vascular
dense, rigid structure
serves to connect, protect and support
What are the subclasses of CT Proper?
loose CT: areolar,adipose,reticular
: regular, irregular, elastic
gel-like matrix with all 3 types of fibers
wraps and cushions organs
found throughout the body
fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, some white blood cells
loose ground substance w/ reticular fibers
reticular cells lie in a fiber network
forms soft, internal skeleton or stroma
found in lymph nodes, bone marrow and the spleen
gel-like matrix with closely packed adipocytes
reserve food stores, insulates against heat loss, supports and protects
found under skin, around kidneys, within abdomen and in breasts
Dense Regular CT:
parallel collagen fibers w/ few elastic fibers
major cell type
attaches muscle to bone or other muscles or bone to bone
: ligaments, tendons and aponeuroses
Dense Irregular CT:
irregularly arranged collagen fibers w/ some elastic cells
major cell type
withstand tension and provide structural strength
found in dermis, digestive tract and fibrous organ capsules (joints)
Dense Elastic CT:
high proportion of elastic fibers
allows for the recoil of tissue following stretching
located in the walls of arteries, certain ligaments in the vertebral column, walls of bronchial tube
Properties of Tendons:
Type I collagen
very little elastin
sugar molecules including proteoglycans, aggrecan and glycoaminoglycans
inorganic molecules (copper, calcium, magnesium)
structure of a tendon:
primary fiber bundle
secondary fiber bundle
tertiary fiber bundle
Properties of Ligaments:
similar to tendons
parallel collagen fibrils
fibrocytes in ECM
Function of tendons:
connects muscle to bone
assists muscle groups in locomotion
provide locomotive support
Function of ligaments:
connect bone to bone
wraps around movable joints
small amount of cells
protect gliding surfaces
sub-classes of cartilage:
: most rigid
: (collagen/fibrocytes structure) intervertebral discs
: least rigid (ear)
Bone (Osseous) Tissue
compact or spongy
used in body structure
: support, protection, attachment site for muscles
What type of cells are found in osseous tissue?
What does the periosteum do?
covers compact bone
Why is blood a connective tissue?
derived from mesenchymal cells
has blood cells (vascular)
surround by a fluid matrix (plasma)
has "fibers"- clotting factors
What is Wolf's Law?
way to remodel bone by straining the bone in order to stimulate growth
most effective when animal is young
recovery and confinement cause the opposite effect
How can cartilage adapt?
calcified layer can increase
adapts similar to bone
What is osteochandrosis?
cartilage lesions found in young animals
What is osteoarthritis?
inflammation leading to cartilage loss
What types of cells are found in nervous tissue?
: regulate neurons
: connect to each other
sends out signals
Types of muscle tissue:
contracts during movement
striated due to myosin and actin
allows heart to beat
intercalated discs send messages for the heart to beat
move fluids through the digestive system
two types of membranes: