Tissue Organization

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  1. Whats special about epithelial tissue?
    • high in cellular content
    • unique contact points
    • polarity
    • supported by connective tissue
    • can regenerate
    • innervated
    • avascular
  2. How is epithelial tissue classified?
    • number of layers
    • shape of cells
  3. What is simple epithelial tissue?
    • single cell layer
    • allows for diffusion
  4. What is pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
    • may have cilia or goblet cells
    • function: secretion
    • ex: trachea
  5. What is stratified epithelial tissue?
    • multiple cell layers
    • regenerate from the bottom cells upward
    • function: support, protection
  6. What is stratified squamous epithelium?
    • basal cells are cubodial or columnar
    • surface cells are flattened or squamous
    • most dominant kind
    • function: protects underlying tissue
    • ex: esophagus, mouth
  7. What is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
    • surface cells are full of keratin and are dead
    • make up the epidermis
  8. What is stratified cubodial and columnar epithelium?
    • less common and less sophisticated
    • function: protection
    • found in the digestive tract
    • most have sweat glands
  9. What is transitional epithelium?
    • resembles stratified squamous and stratified cubodial
    • function: stretches and allows distention of urinary system
    • ex: urinary system
  10. What are epithelial glands?
    • function: secrete a specific product
    • excretes: water-based, protein, lipid or steroid rich substance
    • transported by: water, blood, sweat
  11. Endocrine glands:
    • duct-less
    • produce hormones
    • released directly into extracellular space
    • ex: pancreas
  12. Unicellular exocrine glands:
    have goblet cells that secrete mucus
  13. multi-cellular exocrine glands:
    • epithelium-covered duct
    • secretory unit
    • can have simple or compound duct structures
    • can be tubular or alveolar/acinar secretory structures
  14. Connective Tissue:
    • originates from: mesenchymal cells
    • vascularity: differs
    • extracellular matrix: ground substance, fibers, cells
  15. Major classes of Connective Tissue:
    • CT proper
    • cartilage
    • osseous
    • blood
  16. What is in the ground substance of CT?
    • interstitial fluid
    • cell adhesion molecules
    • proteoglycans
  17. What does the ground substance do for CT?
    • filler
    • contains fibers of the specific CT
  18. What do fibers do for CT?
    • provide support for CT
    • works with the ground substance (rebar or scaffolding)
  19. What are the common types of fibers in CT?
    • collagen fibers
    • elastic fibers
    • reticular fibers
  20. What are the properties of connective tissue?
    • cell poor
    • ECM rich
    • limited or non-vascular
    • dense, rigid structure
    • serves to connect, protect and support
  21. What are the subclasses of CT Proper?
    • loose CT:¬†areolar,adipose,reticular
    • dense CT: regular, irregular, elastic
  22. Areolar CT:
    • gel-like matrix with all 3 types of fibers
    • wraps and cushions organs
    • found throughout the body
    • fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, some white blood cells
  23. Reticular CT:
    • loose ground substance w/ reticular fibers
    • reticular cells lie in a fiber network
    • forms soft, internal skeleton or stroma
    • found in lymph nodes, bone marrow and the spleen
  24. Adipose CT:
    • gel-like matrix with closely packed adipocytes
    • reserve food stores, insulates against heat loss, supports and protects
    • found under skin, around kidneys, within abdomen and in breasts
  25. Dense Regular CT:
    • parallel collagen fibers w/ few elastic fibers
    • major cell type: fibroblasts
    • attaches muscle to bone or other muscles or bone to bone
    • ex: ligaments, tendons and aponeuroses
  26. Dense Irregular CT:
    • irregularly arranged collagen fibers w/ some elastic cells
    • major cell type: fibroblasts
    • withstand tension and provide structural strength
    • found in dermis, digestive tract and fibrous organ capsules (joints)
  27. Dense Elastic CT:
    • high proportion of elastic fibers
    • allows for the recoil of tissue following stretching
    • located in the walls of arteries, certain ligaments in the vertebral column, walls of bronchial tube
  28. Properties of Tendons:
    • Type I collagen
    • very little elastin
    • sugar molecules including proteoglycans, aggrecan and glycoaminoglycans
    • inorganic molecules (copper, calcium, magnesium)
    • tenocytes
  29. structure of a tendon:
    • collagen fibril
    • collagen fiber
    • primary fiber bundle
    • secondary fiber bundle
    • tertiary fiber bundle
    • tendon
  30. Properties of Ligaments:
    • similar to tendons
    • parallel collagen fibrils
    • fibrocytes in ECM
  31. Function of tendons:
    • connects muscle to bone
    • assists muscle groups in locomotion
    • provide locomotive support
  32. Function of ligaments:
    • connect bone to bone
    • stabilizes/limits movement
    • force resistance
    • wraps around movable joints
  33. Cartilage
    • avascular
    • small amount of cells
    • protect gliding surfaces
  34. sub-classes of cartilage:
    • hyaline: most rigid
    • fibrocartilage: (collagen/fibrocytes structure) intervertebral discs
    • elastic cartilage: least rigid (ear)
  35. Bone (Osseous) Tissue
    • compact or spongy
    • used in body structure
    • function: support, protection, attachment site for muscles
  36. What type of cells are found in osseous tissue?
    • oesteoblasts
    • osteocyte
    • osteoclasts
  37. What does the periosteum do?
    covers compact bone
  38. Why is blood a connective tissue?
    • derived from mesenchymal cells
    • has blood cells (vascular)
    • surround by a fluid matrix (plasma)
    • has "fibers"- clotting factors
  39. What is Wolf's Law?
    • way to remodel bone by straining the bone in order to stimulate growth
    • most effective when animal is young
    • recovery and confinement cause the opposite effect
  40. How can cartilage adapt?
    • calcified layer can increase
    • adapts similar to bone
  41. What is osteochandrosis?
    cartilage lesions found in young animals
  42. What is osteoarthritis?
    • inflammation leading to cartilage loss
    • irreversible
  43. What types of cells are found in nervous tissue?
    • glial cells: regulate neurons
    • neurons: connect to each other
  44. Axon:
    sends out signals
  45. Dendrite:
    receives signal
  46. Types of muscle tissue:
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  47. Skeletal muscle:
    • contracts during movement
    • voluntary
    • striated due to myosin and actin
  48. Cardiac muscle:
    • allows heart to beat
    • involuntary
    • intercalated discs send messages for the heart to beat
  49. Smooth muscle:
    • move fluids through the digestive system
    • involuntary
  50. two types of membranes:
    • synovial membrane
    • serrous membrane
Card Set
Tissue Organization
group test 1
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