American History test 1

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lacythecoolest
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282453
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American History test 1
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2014-09-15 18:37:05
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American History
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American History
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  1. John Wintrop
    • Model of Chistian Charity-1630
    • "we shall be as a city on a hill...."
  2. Most Important historian
    Frederick Jackson
  3. Differences between primary vs. secondary sources
    • P: views skewed according to identity, gender, race and age-eyewitness is biased and limited scope
    • S: overall big picture, agenda, may color or edit to advantage
  4. First people to write American HIstory
    • Puritans 17th Century
    • predestination: god controlled all and history equaled what made god happy or unhappy
  5. Schools
    group of historians who approach things the same way
  6. Science based, rationality school of history
    • patricians - 18th c. -1870c.
    • rich white males
    • Laws-god created to make sense of world
    • * wrote for fun
  7. School of history writers that wrote for a living
    professionals
  8. Fredrick Jackson Turners hypothesis:
    • Frontier Thesis: Differences of US
    • * frontier=edge of settlement & plenty of land=experience
  9. American Traits according to Fredrick Jackson Turner
    adventurous, outgoing, survival
  10. School of history writers that used history to change America
    • Progressives -1900-1940's
    • * ideological weapon
    • * struggle of U.S. labor to organize & improve
    • *stress conflict & progress as American way
  11. Charles Beard
    • Economic Interpretation of Constitution
    • reflection of economic advantage of the guys who wrote it
  12. School of Historians that stated America is an idea, you can become an American
    • Neo-conservations - 1940's-1960's
    • *success, freedom, and democracy
  13. school of historians with the idea of gradualism is not good enough
    • New Left
    • See history from bottom up-minority Point of view
    • * want changes faster-slavery, equal rights for all
  14. The 3 G's
    • Gold, god & glory
    • * reasons why the new world was established
  15. Factors in Europe that cause immigration to America in the 15th Century
    (5 reasons, rrr++)
    • Renaissance
    • Reformation
    • Rise of nation-states
    • 1492(Columbus& Spanish)
    • Technology of boats improved
  16. Reformation: who challenges the authority of church in Europe
    • Martin Luther
    • catholics look for people in the new world
  17. dates of rise of nation states
    • 1558-1603
    • spain becoming the 1st nation state
  18. 2 important events during 1492
    • Columbus sailed ocean blue
    • * Spanish took back territory from Muslims & Arabs
    • -have extra $$ & country is at peace w/self
  19. 2 changes in the technology of boats
    • ships design=speed
    • directional devices invented
  20. Man who might've come to America first
    • John Cabot(English) 1497
    • -English started settling in America a century later
  21. American exports
    • turkey's
    • corn, beans, potateos
    • syphillis
  22. Europe exports to america
    • horses
    • bananas
    • oranges
    • smallpox
    • malaria
    • yellow fever
    • tobacco
  23. 2 basic reasons why English settlers came here
    • 1. freedom
    • 2. economic
  24. 5 colonies established for economic purposes
    • Roanoke("Lost") Colony - 1588
    • Jamestown Colony - 1607
    • Amsterdam - 1626
    • South Carolina - 1670
    • Georgia - 1733
  25. 5 Colonies established for religious freedom purposes
    • New England pilgrims - 1620
    • Mass. Puritans - 1629-1640
    • Rhode Island Puritans - 1636
    • Maryland Catholics - 1634
    • Pennsylvania Quakers - 1681
  26. Story with Roanoke Colony
    • Lost-in outerbanks of NC
    • England was sending supplies, went to war with Spain in 1588=no shipments for a few years
    • when England returned they were gone
    • -may have bred with natives
  27. 1st permenant colony of English
    • Jamestown Colony in Virgina 1607
    • settled by London Company
  28. What went wrong with Jamestown?
    • Gentlemen are sent to assess land
    • -much hotter=deaths
    • -John Smith saves
    • -3 B's 1619(burgesses, blacks, & brides)
  29. explain the 3 B's of Jamestown
    • Burgesses-advisers/early form of government
    • Black-slaves 1660
    • Brides-bring in women instead of breeding with natives
  30. Wall street starters
    • Amsterdam, NY 1626
    • * Dutch-diverse tolerant religion
    • Wall to keep natives out
  31. colony with resettled prisoners
    • Oglethorpe Georgia 1733
    • prisoners that were in debt
  32. Great Migration
    • Puritans angry at Europe church for not purifying
    • John Winthrope brings over 10,000 to practice religion 1629-1640
    • Establish a city that will inspire
  33. Mayflower Compact
    • New England, Plymoth Pilgrims separate from religion 1620
    • "make an agreement of colony government" out of necessity
  34. 1st college established
    • Harvard
    • 1636
    • Puritans-Massachutes
  35. believed natives were the devil because skin was red
    Puritans-1636
  36. Liberal Puritan
    • Roger Williams
    • "forced religion stinks in the nostrils of God"
    • goes to Rhode Island=freedom of belief
    • Rhode Island 1636
  37. Roger Williams purposes
    • * freedom of conscience
    • * separation of church & state
    • * baptist
    • * believed in being good and fair to natives
  38. Catholic Haven
    • Maryland 1634
    • Calverts family-Baltimore head of family
    • open to all religions-soon overran with protestants
  39. Pennsylvania/Dutch land
    • William Penn-1634
    • Quakers
    • Amish & Menonites
    • grows wildly & rich with land
    • "Society of friends" leadership rotation included women
  40. Regional differences-southern land and labor
    • headright system
    • indentured servants
    • slavery
    • export-based agriculture
    • rural society
  41. rural society of the southern land and labor
    • institutions:
    • -religion
    • -government
    • -education
  42. Regional differences: New England Land and Labor
    • agriculture: local market
    • Townships and institutions
  43. what was the headright system of the south
    50 acres per person to those who came over-> led to the rich getting poor as indentured servants
  44. America's feudal past difference from England
    • no history of class, structure restraint
    • can become rich
  45. America's difference of family role from England
    have to rely on family for survival, everyone worked for the family
  46. Uniqueness of American traits compared to England
    • Self-reliance, no help from government-individualism
    • violence with natives
  47. Why is it difficult for southern colonies to establish religious, governemtn and educational institutions?
    rural-people lived miles apart-no cities
  48. What did New England do for $$
    -how where they able to establish institutions?
    • exports for fishing and trees for masts
    • townships, 6 miles long, self governed, churches, schools, and stores
  49. why does the middle colonies have the "best poor man's country"?
    what area is this?
    who's there?
    • bc soil is good, can farm food easily and live off the land
    • Pennsylvania
    • dutch & quakers-no opposition for immigrants, very diverse
  50. Problems inland/hinterland colonies faced compared to seacoast colonies
    • Internal improvement-no $ for roads
    • Representation-all government is seacoast, want to redraw lines so their concerns can be addressed
    • Natives-need protection from
  51. Story of Bacon's rebellion
    foreshadow of civil war
    seeds of rebellion
    • 1676
    • bacon is a planter on frontier
    • decides to take over government in east coast
    • angry for lack of protection & representation
  52. 3 hinterland groups that rebel against seacoast
    • bacon's rebellion
    • Paxton boys
    • regulators
  53. Puritan Theology
    • pre-destination
    • man is sinners
    • saved by gods grace
    • saints have experience with god
    • role of scripture
    • moderation
  54. antinomianism
    against churchs handed down laws
  55. reasons for sense of decline by the puritans
    • half-way covenant (1662)had to bring in more people outside of original group
    • King Phillips(1676) war on England puritans-lose
    • Dominion of New England (1684-89)-takes away power
  56. How to the puritans try to compensate for the sense of decline?
    salem witch trials
  57. who were the separatists?
    pilgrims
  58. 5 ways the puritans influenced today's system
    • Limited government: checks & balances
    • Self-government: local districts, community control
    • Individualism: own ideas, challenge system
    • Communalism: sense of community, covenant with god
    • Education: 1st society requires education for everyone
  59. Man who thanked puritan leaders for being strong yet also thankful for not having to follow their ways anymore
    • Nathaniel hawthorne
    • the scarlet letter
    • main street
  60. The two people responsible for the Great Awakening
    • George Whitfield- god loves all, be good
    • Jonathan Edwards-everyones going to hell
  61. 5 points about George Whitfield
    • 1740's
    • Anglican minister-played on emotions-performer
    • big voice & crossed eyed
    • travelled to towns-only events
    • divided groups: old vs new side/light
  62. 4 points about Jonathan Edwards
    • Yale graduate
    • Revivalist pastor
    • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God-1741
    • voted unanimously to dismiss him 1749
  63. 3 pieces of information of the Great Awakening
    • 1740's First periodic American religious revival
    • Unifying influence: continent-wide
    • Dividing influence: split congregations
  64. 3 results of the Great Awakening
    • Challenge to authority: religion theology leads to political ways
    • different type of religious colleges: brown &  Princeton-baptist
    • Toleration: too many religions to have one take control, must get along
  65. What is protestant?
    • different types of churches
    • can start your own if you don't like how another is being ran
    • pushes for individualism
  66. What is Deism?
    • God created world and now it just runs according to laws set in place by god
    • -like a clockmaker
  67. Name the 3 versions of god from The Enlightenment and 2 outcomes
    • Humanism
    • Deism-clockmaker
    • Unitarianism-everyones welcome
    • Political authors-lock, hume, rousseau, voltaire
    • new colleges-Columbia, Pennsylvania
  68. 4 things about Mercantilism
    • the goal was for America to be self-sufficient and provide exports to England
    • "colonies benefit Mother Country"
    • navigation act-placed tariffs on foreign trade, none for America
    • "salutary neglect" Parliament helps, doesn't enforce laws
  69. Points of Navigation Act
    • imperial preferences for America trades
    • provides guaranteed market
    • hinders sales to other countries
  70. Colonial Wars
    • 1689-1815
    • fight because issues outside of America
    • fisheries and fur trade
    • religion
    • alliances with natives French and British
    • =lots of wars, no accomplishments
  71. Great War for Empire
    nicknames
    dates
    balance of forces
    • nicknames: French & Indian, WWI-Europe, NA & India
    • 1754-1763
    • English:French 1 million:90,000 + unity
  72. How the Great War begins
    • Virginia people go to Ohio Country to take over
    • French already there
    • George Washington gets captured-Fort Necessity-middle of French camp
    • William Pitt(Prime Minister) devises plan to knock out French
  73. Fall of Quebec date
    1759-60
  74. Treaty of Paris
    dates
    Good things changes for
    colonial
    power balances
    • Colonial:
    • -French removed=lots of land, Native's stop, increase in fur trade
    • Balance:
    • England is #1 over French
  75. Problems from Treaty of Paris for Colonies
    • indebted to England
    • Indians still in Ohio country
    • Quebec is filled with catholics
    • Colonies unifying with mutual interests differing from England-Albany Plan of Union
  76. 3 philosophical disagreements for the Great Debate
    • evolved via convergent-distance
    • Representation:actual vs virtual
    • Constitution: finite vs. infinite
    • Sovereignty: divisible vs. indivisible
  77. 13 events of the great debate
    • Treaty of Paris 1763
    • Salutary Neglect
    • Writes of Assistance
    • Proclamation of 1763
    • Sugar Act
    • Stamp Act
    • Declaratory Act
    • Quartering Act
    • Townshed Duties
    • Tea Act
    • Coercive("Intolerable") Act
    • Quebec Act
    • First Continental Congress-1774
  78. List the topics of the Great Debate that make our system today
    • Sovereignty-under local control
    • Representation-law official is from local area
    • Constitution-Finite-guaranteed protections for people
  79. Salutary Neglect
    • England has been ignoring colonies smuggling
    • need $= Enforced more rigorously
  80. Writs of Assistance
    • Law enforcers go to local judge for search warrants of smuggled goods
    • judges warn b4 giving
    • Solution: no warrant to search
    • -violation of privacy
    • -parliament changes constitution
  81. Proclamation of 1763
    • colonies cannot cross red line
    • bc: native helped, less $ on protecting colonists, keep eye on them
    • trying to push English north
    • can't get to invested lands
  82. Sugar Act
    • Admiralty Courts
    • smugglers brought to trial in Quebec
    • -local court juries=friends=not guilty regardless of evidence
    • Novascota jury made of naval officers=guilty
    • -denied: trial by peers & witnesses
  83. Stamp Act (1765)
    • legal documents require purchase of stamped paper
    • Hire people to be British agents
    • colonists hate-tar & feather, see as spy
    • Colonist believe taxes should be local matter
    • Most affected are most influential
  84. Declaratory Act
    • England says fine, but we can change rules when we desire to do so
    • Colonists learn if they push hard enough England gives in
  85. Quartering Act
    • Towns required to have military in each town at their expense
    • -$$, take jobs, take women, spying=rights violations, intimidating
  86. Townshend Duties
    • Massachusetts Circular letter discouraging purchase of British goods
    • Boston Massacre: group of people throwing snowballs at them, end up shooting people-first black person killed
    • Soldiers tried & acquitted thanks to John Adams
    • -realized America wasn't ready to rise up
  87. Tea Act 1773
    • sends tea from East Indies at lower tax rate
    • -harms merchants/colonists weary-feel as if their being bribed to lose power
    • -boston merchants dressed as natives sneak aboard and dump it out
    • all other ports deny ships port
  88. Coercive Acts 1774
    • Intolerable Act
    • Boston Port Act: required Boston to pay for tea, till then port is closed
    • Massachusetts Government Act: local government is suspended
    • Administration of Justice Act: Britain is in charge
    • Quebec Act
  89. Quebec Act 1774
    • Appoint English Governor-only 2% can vote
    • Recognized Roman Catholics
    • THey get Ohio country
    • French civil law
    • No elected assembly
  90. Result of Great Debate?
    • 1774 First Continental Congress
    • Representatives of the 13 colonies
    • John Adams
  91. American Creed Core ideas: (6)
    • Freedom
    • Liberty
    • Individualism
    • Democracy
    • Equality
    • Rule of Law
  92. We shall be as a city on a hill....
    John Winthrop
  93. Writer of American Politics: the Promise of Disharmony
    Samuel P. Huntington 1981
  94. 3 points from Samuel Huntington
    • Dissonance between ideals and reality
    • contradictions between absolute ideals
    • seek perfection from imperfect leaders

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