Microbiology

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kaori
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282455
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Microbiology
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2014-09-12 11:28:17
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Prokaryotic Cell Structure
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Prokaryotic Cell Structure
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  1. Prokaryotic means "before a _____"
    Nucleus
  2. Antibiotics including erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and ____ all work by blocking protein synthesis at a 70s ribosome.
    Chloramphenicol
  3. Endospore forming Clostridium _____ produces a neurotoxin hat causes tetanus.
    Tetini
  4. °° referring to the arrangement and shaper of these bacteria cells, the term would be ____.
    Diplococcus
  5. Chemiosmosis is the process of making most of the ___ in a cell; in prokaryotes it occurs across the cell membrane
    ATP
  6. ____ are "extra" loops of DNA in a bacterial cell that often contain genes for antibiotic resistance and/or mating factor information.
    Plasmid
  7. Bacterial DNA is termed "____" because it is not complexed with histone proteins.
    Naked
  8. _____ proteins form passageways through the outer membrane of a Gram-negative cell wall.
    Porin
  9. Eukaryotic ribosomes are ___s while prokaryotic ribosomes are 70s.
    80s
  10. Corkscrew-shaped bacteria are called ___.
    Spirillum
  11. Endospore-forming Clostridium _____ produces a neurotoxin that causes botulism.
    Botulinum
  12. Faclitated diffusion refers to the movement of substances such as sugars and amino acids through perm ease protein ____ (called channels) of a cell membrane.
    Passageway
  13. Gram positive bacteria are ____ (violet) after the 4 steps of Gram staining.
    Purple
  14. °°°° Referring to the arrangement and shape of hess bacterial cells, the term would be ______.
    Streptococcus
  15. A plasmid is an "extra" loop of DNA in a bacterial cell that often contains genes for antibiotic resistance and ____ factor information.
    Mating
  16. ____ is the term that describes a bacterial cell with a single flagellum.
    Monotrichous
  17. _____ is a purposeful movement in response to oxygen concentrations.
    Aerotaxis
  18. The small submit of a eukaryotic ribosome is ____s in size.
    40
  19. ____ is the process of making most of the ATP in a cell; in prokaryotes it occurs across the cell membrane.
    Chemiosmosis
  20. Prokaryotic ribosomes are ___s while eukaryotic ribosomes are 80s.
    70
  21. A phospholipid molecule is described as ___ because it is polar on one end and non polar on the other end.
    Amphipatic
  22. The term ____ refers to the production of a protective endospore in certain bacillus bacteria whenever environment conditions become harsh.
    Sporogenesis
  23. The presence of a capsule outside the cell wall usually indicates the bacterium is a _____ (disease-causing).
    Pathogen
  24. The ____ space lies between the cell membrane and the peptidoglycan layers of a Gram-positive cell wall; In Gram-negatice cell walls, it lies between the cell membrane and the outer membrane of the cell wall.
    Periplasmic
  25. The ___ is the curved portion of the bacterial flagellum which apis around when the base plate turns.
    Hook.
  26. Passive movements (such as osmosis, simple diffusion, and facilitated diffusion) across cell membranes occur _____ a concentration gradient, and therefore do not require energy.
    Down
  27. Antibiotics including erythromycin, _____, tetracycline and chloramphenicol all work by blocking protein synthesis at a 70s ribosome.
    Streptomycin
  28. The peptide part of peptidoglycan consists of short chains of ___ ___ that hold the carbohydrate stands together.
    Amino Acids
  29. The term ____ refers to nonmotile bacteria lacking flagella.
    Atrichous
  30. An ____ is a "survival structure" that certain bacillus bacteria make in response to a harsh environment.
    Endospore
  31. Gram negative bacteria are hot reddish-_____ after the 4 steps of Gram staining.
    Pink
  32. ____ is the term that describes a bacterial cell with numerous flagella all over its surface.
    Peritrichous
  33. Some bacterial pili are used for attaching to slick surfaces while others may be used during ____ transfer DNA from one cell to another.
    Mating
  34. The small subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome is _____s in size.
    30
  35. A plasmid is an "extra loop of DNA in a bacterial cell that often contains genes for ____ resistance and/or mating factor information.
    Antibiotic
  36. The ____ part of peptidoglycan consists of short chains of amino acids that hold the carbohydrate stands together.
    Peptide
  37. Motile bacteria swim with one or more structures called _____.
    Flagella
  38. The movement of substances from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration is called simple _____.
    Diffusion
  39. The middle region of the phospholipid bi-layer of a cell membrane is ____ (hydrophobic/hydrophilic).
    Hydrophobic
  40. A ___ is a thick, polysaccharide layer outside there cell wall of some bacteria, making them harder to be phagocytized.
    Capsule
  41. A corkscrew-shaped bacterial cell is called _____.
    Spirllum
  42. A spherical-shaped bacterial cell is called ____.
    Cuccus
  43. The plural of coccus is ____.
    Cocci
  44. Cell membranes are described as ____-____ because certain substances can go in or out, but others cannot.
    Semi-Permeable
  45. The cell ____ of all cells is a semi-permeable phospholipid  bi-layer containing proteins and glycoproteins.
    Membrane
  46. Endospores are destroyed by ____, where they are held at 121° C and 15-20 psi for 15-20 minutes.
    Autoclaving
  47. The term ____ describes a bacterial cell with a group or cluster of flagella at one end.
    Lophotrichous
  48. A cell wall protects a cell from ____ in distilled water.
    Lysis
  49. Most bacteria have a ____ _____ made of peptidoglycan outside of their cell membrane.
    Cell Wall
  50. In a phospholipid molecule, the two ____ fatty acids form the hydrophobic end.
    Nonpolar
  51. A ___ is a purposeful movement in response to light.
    Phototaxis
  52. A ____ is a purposeful movement in response to chemical such as food.
    Chemotaxis
  53. A eukaryotic flagellum contains bundles of ___ that cause a lashing back and forth motion.
    Microtubules
  54. The term that describes a bacterial cell with one or more flagella at both ends is ____.
    Amphitrichous
  55. The ____ _____ is the innermost living boundary of all cells.
    Cell Membrane
  56. ____ are protein projections of bacterial cell membranes used for attachment to slippery surfaces and for mating.
    Pili
  57. The phrase "___-__-___" describes the trial and error swimming pattern of flagellated bacteria.
    Run and Tumble
  58. While ours occur in linear pairs, the single prokaryotic ____ is described as a loop of "naked" DNA, lacking histone proteins.
    Chromosomes
  59. The sodium- _____ pump of nerve cell and muscle cell membranes is an excellent example of active transport.
    Potassium
  60. The hook is the curved portion of the bacterial flagellum which spins around when the ____ ____ turns.
    Base Plate
  61. Gram ____ (negative/positive) bacteria are purple-violet after Gram staining
    Positive
  62. _____ diffusion revers to the movement of substances such as sugars and amino acids through perm ease protein passageways (called channels) of a cell membrane.
    Facilitated
  63. The ____ ends of phospholipid molecules are hydrophilic.
    Polar
  64. Passive movements (such as osmosis, simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion) across cell membranes occur down a ______ gradient, and therefore do not require energy.
    Concentration
  65. ____ is the plural of bacillus
    Bacilli
  66. Almost all bacteria have a cell wall made of ____.
    Peptidoglycan
  67. _______ movements (such as osmosis, simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion) across cell membranes occur down a concentration gradient, and therefore do not require energy.
    Passive
  68. The large subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome is __s in size.
    50
  69.  Referring to the arrangement and shape of these bacteria cells, the term would be ____.
    Diplobacillus
  70. _____ _____ molecules anchor the peptidoglycan wall layer onto the cell membrane of Gram-positive bacteria.
    Lipoteichoic Acid
  71. The ____ part of the peptidoglycan wall is composed of strands of two alternating modified glucoses or 'amino sugars' known as NAG and NAM.
    Glycan
  72. _____ of bacteria with a capsule is much more difficult for white blood cells.
    Phagocytosis
  73. Bacteria of genus ____ lack a cell wall and are the most common cause of "walking pneumonia".
    Mycoplasma
  74. A rod-shaped bacterial cell is termed ____.
    Bacillus
  75. ____ refers to a purposeful movement in response to Earth's magnetic fields.
    Magnetotaxis
  76. The glycan part of the peptidoglycan wall is composed of strands of two alternating modified glucoses or '____ _____' known as NAG and NAM.
    Amino Sugars
  77. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the outer membrane of Gram ___ (negative/positive) bacteria can become a endotoxin when release in the host.
    Negative
  78. _____ staining distinguishes bacteria based upon differences in their cell walls into tow groups: positive and negative.
    Gram
  79. Endospore-forming Bacillus ____ produces a toxin that causes anthrax
    Anthracis
  80. A cell membrane is described as a ____ bi-layer containing proteins and glycoproteins.
    Phospholipids
  81. Lipoteichoic acid and teichoic acid molecules help to connect and stabilize the ____ ____ cell wall.
    Gram positive
  82. Cocci in cuboidal packets of four or eight are called _____ cocci.
    Sarcinae
  83. _____ ____ molecules stabilize the layers of peptidoglycan in Gram-positive cell walls.
    Teichoic Acid
  84. Antibiotics including ________, streptomycin, tetracycline, and choramphenicol all work by blocking protein synthesis at a 70s ribosome.
    Erythromycin
  85. A ____ is an organelle described as 70s in a prokaryotic cell and 80s in a eukaryotic cell.
    Ribosome
  86. Genus Mycoplasma includes bacteria that lack a cell wall and that are the most common cause of "______ pneumonia"
    Walking
  87. A protein attachment "spike" arising from the bacterial cell membrane and projecting out through the cell wall (and capsule, if one is present) is a ______.
    Pilus
  88. The _____-potassium pump of nerve cell and muscle cell membranes is an excellent example of active transport.
    Sodium
  89. Bacterial DNA is termed "naked" because it is not completed with ____ proteins.
    Histone
  90. The term ____ refers to a grape-like cluster of spherical bacterial cells.
    Staphylococcus
  91. There term ____ refers to a long chain of rod-shaped bacterial cells.
    Streptobacillus
  92. Protein passageway through a membrane that allow facilitated diffusion are called _____ or channels.
    Permeases
  93. In a phospholipid molecule, two nonpolar ____ ____ form the hydrophobic end.
    Fatty Acids
  94. Movement of substances across a cell membrane, up a concentration gradient requires _____ and is called active transport.
    Energy
  95. Active transport is accomplished by a membrane protein passageway called a _____.
    Pump
  96. A taxis is a purposeful response to a ____ in the environment.
    Stimulus
  97. Movement of substances across a cell membrane, up a concentration gradient requires energy and is called ____ ____.
    Active Transport
  98. The negatively charged phosphate groups are found along the inner and outer surfaces of the phospholipid bi-layer of a cell membrane because they are _______ (hydrophobic/hydrophilic)
    Hydrophilic
  99. The prokaryotic flagellum consists of a base plate, a hook, and a long protein _____.
    Filament
  100. A cell membrane can be described as a phospholipid ___ - ____.
    Bi-Layer
  101. _____ refers to the diffusion of water through a membrane.
    Osmosis
  102. The larg subunit of a eukaryotic ribosome is __s in size.
    60
  103. A ______ (LPS) of the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria can become a endotoxin when released in the host.
    Lipopolysaccharide
  104. Parallel stacks of bacilli care descried as a ____ arrangement.
    Palisade
  105. The negatively charged ____ _____ of a phospholipid molecules is the polar end.
    Phosphate Group
  106. Prokaryotic cell membranes do not contain the steroid ____, but eukaryotic membranes do.
    Cholestrtol
  107. Pili are projections that aid in ____ to slippery surfaces and in mating.
    Attachment
  108. ____ ____ cell walls consist of a thin layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer membrane.
    Gram Negative
  109. One way the bacterial chromosome is different from ours is that their DNA forms a circular ____.
    Loop
  110. Endospores are "_____" structures made by some bacillus bacteria when conditions become harsh.
    Survival
  111. Osmosis refers to the diffusion of ____ across a membrane.
    Water
  112. A protein on the outer surface of a cell membrane that receives chemical signal is called a ____ site.
    Receptor
  113. A ____ is a purposeful movement in response to an environmental stimulus.
    Taxis
  114. Gram ____ (negative/positive) bacteria have a thick cell wall with many peptidoglycan layers.
    Positive
  115. ____ is a rod-shaped bacterium.
    Bacillus
  116. Human cells placed in physiological _____ solution remain healthy because there is no net osmosis in out out.
    Saline
  117. Example of ____ diffusion are movements of 02 and C0into or out of a cell right through the phospholipid bi-layer.
    Simple
  118. Cell arrangement joined int twos are called ____.
    Diplo
  119. Cell arrangement in a chin or strand are called ____.
    Strep
  120. Cell arrangement in an irregular grape like cluster of cocci are called ____.
    Staph
  121. Cell arrangement in regular cuboidal packets of 4-8 cocci scatted are called ____.
    Sarcinae
  122. Cell arrangement in parallel stacks of bacilli are called ____. (like a log going down a river)
    Palisade

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