Ch. 3 2500

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  1. involves acquiring the rules of language that govern the sound structure of syllables and words
    phonological development
  2. words that only differ by one phoneme
    minimal pairs
  3. acceptable orders of sounds in syllables and words and the places where specific phonemes can and cannot occur
    phonotactic rules
  4. -using cues to segment streams of speech
    -developing a phonemic inventory
    -becoming phonologically aware
    key building blocks of phonological development
  5. infants draw their familiarity with word and syllable stress patterns, or the rhythm of the language
    prosodic cues
  6. parsing the speech stream. being sensitive to the probability that certain sounds will occur both in general and in specific positions of syllables and words
    phonotactic cues
  7. internal representations of the phonemes composing his or her native language
    phonological knowledge
  8. expression of phonemes from their native language to produce syllables and words. also known as expression
    phonological production
  9. consonants that arrive in early development
    early consonants
  10. consonants that arrive late in development
    late consonants
  11. ability of an individual to attend to the phonological units of speech through implicit or explicit analysis
    phonological awareness
  12. -syllable counting
    -rhyme detection
    -initial sound identification
    -initial sound elision (taking away the first sound yields ___)
    -phoneme counting
    all aspects of phonological awareness
  13. ability to attend to individual phonemes in words
    phonemic awareness
  14. teaches the relationship between letters and sounds
    phonic instructions
  15. refers to the importance of a phoneme in the phonemic inventory of the language
    functional load
  16. grammatical morphemes are also known as
    inflectional morphemes
  17. morphemes added to words to change their syntactic class and semantic meaning
    derivational morphemes
  18. occurs when a mature grammar specifies the use of a grammatical marker
    obligatory contexts (The dog's bone is lost vs the dog bone lost)
  19. derivational words are created by attaching morphemes to root words to yield _____ words
  20. children's internalization of the rules of language that govern how words are organized into sentence
    syntactic development
  21. the rules and principles that speakers of a language use to structure sentences
  22. calculating the mean number of morphemes per utterance provides a simple proxy for estimating the syntactic complexity of childrens utterances
    mean length of utterance (MLU)
  23. this type of sentence makes a statement
    declarative sentence
  24. these types of sentences express negation and rely on such words as no, not, cant, dont and wont
    negative sentences
  25. sentences that involve the act of questioning
    interrogative sentences
  26. childrens development of the interrogative sentence modality includes achievement of two major question types
    wh- questions and yes-no questions
  27. a cluster of words organized around a head
    phrase (the tall, angry boy, in the bucket)
  28. connecting phrases, as in this sentence in which and links two noun phrases : I'm putting on my coat and my hat.
    phrasal coordination
  29. syntactic structure containing a verb or a verb phrase
  30. Stage of Grammatical Development:

    -Single word utterances predominate.
    stage 1
  31. Stage of Grammatical Development:

    Emergence of different sentence modalities: yes-no questions, wh- questions, imperatives, and negatives
    Stage 3
  32. Stage of Grammatical Development:

    Grammatical inflections emerge (eg present progressive marker). Emergence of grammar as child follows basic word-order patterns
    Stage 2
  33. Stage of Grammatical Development:

    Complex sentences emerge to feature multiclause sentences, such as object-noun phrase complements ("this is the one i made"), embedded wh- questions ("Thats why she went outside"), and embedded relative clauses ("clifford, who was so good, is still waiting")
    stage 4
  34. Stages of grammatical development:

    Emergence of coordinating conjunctions and adverbial conjuncts ("I am tired because i didnt take a nap")
    Stage 5
  35. refers to the use of phrase and clause structures as well as conjunctive devices for organizing internal structures of sentences
    complex syntax
  36. the talk directed to children by others, including parents and other caregivers
    child directed speech (CDS)
  37. grammatically well-formed utterances containing simple noun phrases and verb structures
    simple syntax
  38. language disorders that only affect language
    specific language disorder
  39. language disorders that are present at birth
    developmental language disorders
  40. language disorders that result from an injury or illness that damages the language centers of the brain
    acquired language disorders
  41. an individuals learning and storage of the meanings of words
    semantic development
  42. a) acquiring a mental lexicon of about 60,000 words from birth to adulthood
    b) learning new words repidly
    c) organizing the mental lexicon in an efficient semantic network
    Semantic development involves these three things
  43. a word spurt that begins near the end of the second year and continues for several years
    vocabulary spurt
  44. differentiates words on the basis of their semantic roles
    semantic taxonomy
  45. semantic taxonomy:

    refer to a specific object
    specific nominals
  46. semantic taxonomy:

    refer to all members of a category
    general nominals
  47. semantic taxonomy:

    describe specific actions, social-action games, and action inhibitors
    action words
  48. semantic taxonomy:

    describe properties and qualities
  49. semantic taxonomy:

    describe affective states and relationships
    personal-social words
  50. -concept represented by the word
    -phonological form of the word
    -contextual conditions at initial exposure
    affect the rapidity with which a child develops a more adultlike understanding of a word
  51. labeling an object or event that is outside of teh childs attentional focus
  52. labeling an object or event that is currently the childs attentional focus
    follow-in (more influential)
  53. contextual information that is provided about a novel word either linguistically or extralinguistically
    ostentive word-learning contexts (better)
  54. little contextual information is provided to help a person derive the meaning of a new word
    nonostentive word-learning contexts
  55. as the human brain acquires new words, they are stores in a _____ ____ in which its entries are organized according to connective ties among them
    semantic network. a persons mental lexicon contains a vast network of lexical entries linked by connective ties that vary in relative strength
  56. the activation of specific entries spreads across the network according to the strength of connections among entries
    spreading activation
  57. involves acquiring the rules of language that govern how language is used as a social tool
    pragmatic development
  58. -using language or different communication functions
    -developing conversational skills
    -gaining sensitivity to extralinguistic cues
    important aspects of pragmatic development djoe!
  59. intention behind utterances
    communication function
  60. Types of Communication Functions:

    used to ask for something
  61. Types of Communication Functions:

    used to give directions and to direct others
  62. Types of Communication Functions

    used to interact and converse with others in social way
  63. used to express a state of mind or feelings about something
  64. used to find out information and to acquire
  65. used to tell stories and to rol-play
  66. used to provide an organized description of an event or object
  67. childrens development of form and content is fostered in part by their experiences with other people as they use language to engage with these people
    intentionality hypothesis
  68. stylistic variations in language that occur in different situational context; for example, consider how you vary your language form, content, and use when making a request of a best friend versus your college professor
  69. a way in which an individual approaches a situation, particularly one that is unfamiliar; their behavior style or personality type
Card Set:
Ch. 3 2500
2014-09-09 21:25:31
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