Anantomy & Physiology 1

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jmali921
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282561
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Anantomy & Physiology 1
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2014-10-03 22:39:45
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anatomy physiology
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Human Anatomy and Physiology Definitions
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  1. Major functions of trigylcerides
    • Energy Storage
    • Insulation
    • Protection
  2. Saturated fatty acid
    single covalent bonds between C atoms
  3. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    one or more double covalent bonds between C atoms
  4. Role of phospholipid molecule
    important in cellular structure
  5. _____ is the basis for all steroids formed in the body
    steroids
  6. What is the role of cholesterol in the body
    important in cell membranes, and the synthesis of vitamin D, steroid hormones, and bile salts
  7. an important example of eicosanoids are
    prostaglandins
  8. 6 Major functions of membrane proteins
    • transport
    • receptors
    • attachment sites for structure
    • enzymatic activity 
    • Intercellular joining 
    • Cell-Cell recognition
  9. 3 types of cell junctions
    • Tight junctions
    • desmosomes
    • gap junctions
  10. what is a tight junction?
    impermeable junctions prevent molecules from passing through the intercellular space between neighbouring cells
  11. What is a desmosome?
    • Anchoring junctions bind adjacent cells together like a molecular "velcro" and help form an internal tension-reducing network of fibers
    • found between neighbouring cells
    • maintains the integrity of the sheet of cells via linker proteins (cadherins) 
    • ex. the epidermis is connected by desmosomes
  12. What is a gap junction?
    • channels formed by proteins (formed by connexons) to make a connecting tunnel
    • communicating junctions that allow ions and small molecules to pass for intercellular communication 
  13. In the plasma membrane, cells are surrounded by an Extracullar fluid called ____________
    interstitial fluid
  14. Two ways that substances cross a membrane
    passive and active processes 
  15. In the ways which substances cross the membrane, which requires ATP?
    Active Process
  16. Two major types of passive transport
    • diffusion 
    • Filtration 
  17. 3 types of diffusion
    • simple diffusion 
    • facilitated diffusion (carrier-mediated & channel mediated) 
    • osmosis
  18. speed of diffusion is influenced by?
    Molecule size and temperature 
  19. if a substance is lipid-soluble, it will diffuse ______________ through the lipid bilayer of a membrane
    passively 
  20. if a substance is lipid-insoluble, it can be transported ______________ across a membrane by a membrane protein:
    a)
    b)
    • passively
    • a) carrier proteins
    • b) channel proteins 
  21. two types of channel proteins
    • 1) leakage channels - always open 
    • 2) gated channels - controlled primarily by chemical and electrical signals 
  22. define osmosis
    diffusion of water across a membrane via water channel proteins called aquaporins or though the lipid bilayer itself.
  23. osmolarity:
    measure of the total concentration of solute particles in a solution 
  24. isotonic solution
    solution with the same non-penetrting solute concentration as the cytosol
  25. hypertonic solution
    solution with a higher non-pentrating solute concentration than the cytosol
  26. hypotonic solution
    solution with a lower non-pentrating solute concentration than the cytosol 
  27. a hypertonic solution will cause a RBC to?
    shrink
  28. A hypotonic solution will cause a RBC to?
    swell
  29. Two types of active processes (not to be confused)
    • active transport
    • Vesicular Transport
  30. Both active processes have this in common
    require ATP
  31. Active transport requires ATP and _________ __________ to move solutes ______ their concentration gradient
    • Carrier Proteins
    • against
  32. Two types of active transport
    • Primary Active Transport 
    • Secondary Transport
  33. Contrast primary and secondary transport
    • primary - ATP directly from ATP hydrolysis 
    • secondary - energy indirectly from ionic gradients created by primary active transport
  34. Sodium-potassium pump characteristics
    • pumps 3 Na+ outward for every 2 K+ transported inward
    • hydrolyzes ATP
  35. Secondary Active transport involves _______, note is does not require ______
    • cotransport ( two solutes at the same time)
    • ATP
  36. This type of transport transports large particles, macromolecules, and fluids across the membrane sacs; it requires cellular energy
    Vesicular transport
  37. types of vesicular transport
    • endocytosis
    • exocytosis 
    •           -phagocytosis
    •           -pinocytosis
  38. Phagocytosis
    The process when a cell engulf a large particle by forming projecting pseudopods around it an enclosing it with a membrane sac called a phagosome
  39. cells that can phagocytize cells
    • macrophages 
    • some white blood cells
  40. Pinocytosis
    plasma membrane invaginates, bringing the solutes inside the cell
  41. Pinocytosis can occur with which types of cells?
    All cell types
  42. Functions of exocytosis
    • hormone secretion
    • neurotransmitter release
    • mucus secretion
    • ejection of wastes
  43. Exocytosis is accomplished by forming a _________ vesicle
    • secretory
    • The V snare (vesicle) docks onto the T  snare (membrane)
  44. The range of resting membrane potential between different cells
    -50 mV to -100 mV
  45. how is the resting membrane potential produced
    by the seperation of oppositely charged ions by a plasma membrane
  46. In a membrane when the concentration of differently charged ions occur between inside and outside the cell
    the process of a cell becoming "polarized"
  47. Potassium channels which form a resting membrane potential are known as ________ channels
    LEAKAGE channels
  48. When the cell is polarized it is _________ on the outside of the cell and _________ on the inside of the cell
    • positive (outside)
    • negative (inside)
  49. Cell environment interactions always involves
    • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
    • plasma membrane receptors 
    • voltage-gated channel proteins
  50. Some roles of plasma membrane receptors in cell-environment interactions
    • contact signaling
    • chemical signaling
  51. What are ligands
    • signaling molecules
    • (neurotransmitters, hormones, paracrines)
  52. Contrast hormones and paracrines
    • hormones- long distance signaling molecule
    • paracrines - short distance signalling molecules
  53. catalytic receptor proteins after ligand binding become activated ____________
    enzymes
  54. G-protein linked receptor activates the _________
    G-protein
  55. In a cascade sequence of cellular messaging the ligand represents the _____________
    1st messenger
  56. define cytosol
    water with solutes
  57. The cytoplasm is composed of
    cytosol and organelles
  58. 3 non-membranous organelles
    • cytoskeleton
    • centrioles
    • ribosomes
  59. neurones and cardiac muscles cells and skeletal muscle cells are usually found in which cell cycle phase?
    Go
  60. mitosis vs cytokinesis
    • Mitosis: division of the nucleus 
    • Cytokinesis: division of the cytoplasm
  61. define cell differentiation
    • cells become different from each other because of genetic controls, resulting in specialized cells to perform specialized functions
    • occurs during embryonic growth
  62. during embryological development, more cells than needed are produced; the cells which are not needed are eliminated later by this process
    apoptosis
  63. in areas of the body with higher stress you would expect to see these types of junctions
    desmosomes
  64. the main function of DNA is to dictate _______ synthesis
    protein
  65. DNA is doubled in which phase?
    G1
    G2
    S
    I
    S
  66. Define tissue
    a group of similar cells in structure that performs a common or related function
  67. 4 major families of tissues
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Muscle tissue
    • Nervous Tissue
  68. plural for epithelium
    epithelia
  69. Tissue functions of epithelia
    • protection
    • absorption
    • filtration
    • excrection 
    • secretion
    • sensory reception
  70. functions of simple epithelia
    • absoprtion 
    • secretion
    • filtration
  71. 2 types of avascular tissue
    • cartilage 
    • epithelial tissue
  72. 3 types of cartilage
    • hyaline catilage 
    • fibrocartliage
    • elastic cartilage
  73. the most abundant type of cartilage
    hyaline cartilage
  74. Functions of Hyaline Cartliage
    • supports and reinforces
    • serves as a resilient cushion
    • resists compressive stress
  75. The locations of hyaline cartilage
    • covers the end of long bones****
    • forms costal cartilage of the ribs
    • cartilage of the nose
    • trachea
    • larynx
  76. function of elastic cartliage
    maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great felxability
  77. location of the elastic cartilage
    • external ear (pinna)
    • epiglottis
  78. Function of fibroocartilage
    tensile strength allows it to absorb compressive shock
  79. location of fibrocartilage
    • interverterbal discs
    • pubic symphysis 
    • discs of the knee joint
  80. What is the strongest type of cartilage
    fibrocartilage
  81. bone is called ______ tissue
    osseous
  82. _________ produce the matrix
    while, _________ maintain the matrix
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
  83. ECM has ________ that make the bones hard and rigid
    calcium salts
  84. Lacunae
    hollow holes in bone tissue where osteocytes lie
  85. descibe blood
    red and white blood cells in plasma
  86. the function of blood
    transport respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances
  87. The ECM of blood is known as?
    plasma
  88. 3 types of muscle tissue
    • skeletal muscle tissue
    • cardiac muscle tissue
    • smooth muscle tissue
  89. Describe skeletal muscle
    • long
    • cylindrical
    • multinucleate cells
    • obvious striations
  90. describe cardiac muscle tissue
    • branching
    • striated
    • generally uninucleate cells
  91. describe smooth muscle
    • spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei 
    • no striations
  92. type of epithelial best suited for diffusion
    simple squamous
  93. touch sensors in the epidermis are known as
    tactile sensors
  94. critical functions of the sebum
    • prevent harmful bacterial exposure
    • skin softening
    • prevents the skin from drying out
  95. 4 classifications of bones
    • long bones
    • short bones (sesamoid included)
    • flat bones
    • irregular bones
  96. 7 Functions of bones
    • support
    • protection
    • movement
    • mineral and growth factor storage
    • blood cell formation: hematopoiesis
    • triglyceride storage
    • hormone production
  97. 2 types of bone tissuse
    • compact bone (dense outer layer on all bones)
    • spongy bone: consisted of interconnected bone tissue connected through "trabeculae" located deep to they outer layer
  98. define spongy bone
    consisted of interconnected bone tissue connected through "trabeculae" located deep to they outer layer
  99. _____ bones and well as _____ bones and _____ bones consist of a layer of spongy bone sandwiched between two thin layers of compact bone
    • flat
    • short 
    • irregular
  100. label the diagram of a long bone***
  101. the shaft of a long bone is correctly called?
    the diaphysis
  102. The ends of a long bone are called?
    both ends are called the epiphyses; singular = epiphysis
  103. each epiphysis in a long bone is covered by _____ cartilage
    articular (hyaline)
  104. aside from the articular cartilage, the rest of the long bone is covered by the __________
    periosteum (thin layer of dense connective tissue)
  105. Most of the interior diaphysis of a long bone is occupied by?
    medullary cavity (yellow bone marrow, mostly adipose tissue)
  106. The medullary cavity of a long bone is lined with a layer of ___________
    endosteum
  107. the epiphysis has a region of compact bone tissue, separating two layers of spongy bone; this is called the?
    epiphyseal line (the remnant of the epiphyseal plate), where cell division takes place to lengthen the bone
  108. red bone marrow is found?
    What is the function?
    • in the spaces of spongy bones
    • red blood cell production
  109. In adults, where is bone marrow found?  In what type of bone?
    Adult long bones have red marrow typically located only in the head of the femur and the head of the humerus
  110. Types of bone cells
    • Osteogenic cell
    • osteoblast
    • osteocyte
    • osteoclast
  111. Osteogenic cell function
    • mitotically active stem cells located in the periosteoum and endosteum
    • when stimulated, differentiate into osteoblasts
  112. Osteoblast function
    • produced ECM 
    • bone growth/formation
    • secrete unmineralized bone matrix (osteoid)
  113. function of osteocyte
    • located in lacuna
    • monitors and maintain the mineralized bone matrix
  114. function of osteoclast
    • bone-resobing cell
    • located in the periosteum and endosteum
    • multinucleate cells that can secrete enzymes that destroy bone matrix
  115. compact bone tissue consists of structural units called ______ or _________ _________. Each osteon consists of  concentric hollow bone tubes of bone matrix called ______
    • osteons 
    • haversian system 
    • lamellae
  116. the cell type that secretes the osteoid in bone tissue?
    osteoblasts
  117. Hematopoietic tissue is located primarily within
    epiphysis of the long bone
  118. define anatomy 
    study of structure of the body 
  119. define physiology 
    study of function  of the body
  120. Name the levels of structural organization (smallest to biggest)
    • Chemical level
    • Cellular Level
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • Organ system
    • Organismal Level 
  121. Describe the Integumentary System
    forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain pressure, etc.), receptors and sweat and oil glands.
  122. describe the skeletal system
    protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles to cause movement. Blood cells are formed with bones. Bones store minerals. 

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