A&P exam 1 (part 2)

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melissag94
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A&P exam 1 (part 2)
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2014-09-09 20:29:42
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organic chemistry cell structure and function a and p 1 fall 2014
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  1. organic molecules?
    • carbs
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  2. ex of carbs
    sugars
  3. ex of lipids
    • fats
    • oils
    • waxes
  4. ex of proteins
    amino acids
  5. nucleic acids ex?
    DNA and RNA
  6. organic compounds?
    • all contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • all have a carbon backbone
  7. has 4 valence electrons and can form 4 covalent bonds
    carbon
  8. ex of organic molecule
    methane
  9. long carbon changes
    hydrocarbons
  10. if you add ___ to hydrocarbons, then you have an organic compound
    oxygen
  11. ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen ?
    1:2:1
  12. sugars?
    • monosaccharides
    • disaccharides
    • polysaccharides
  13. primary source of energy
    monosaccharides
  14. chemical energy is stored in bonds, how do you extract that energy?
    break the bonds
  15. formula for glucose ?
    glucose + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H20 + 686 Kcal
  16. energy storage compounds
    disaccharides
  17. glucose + fructose? ex?
    • sucrose
    • fruit
  18. glucose + glucose? ex?
    • maltose
    • grains
  19. glucose + galactose? ex?
    • lactose
    • dairy
  20. disacharides?
    • sucrose
    • maltose
    • lactose
  21. polysaccharides are used for?
    • storage
    • structure
  22. polysaccharides store what in plants?
    starch
  23. polysaccharides store what in animals?
    glycogen
  24. what do polysaccharides use for structure?
    • cellulose (plants)
    • glycocalyx (cell membranes)
  25. how do humans break down cellulose?
    bacteria in our bodies break it down bc we cannot break it down ourselves
  26. how do animals store energy
    in the form of glycogen
  27. associated with the cell membrane?
    glycocalyx
  28. properties of lipids?
    • not soluble in polar solvents
    • soluble in nonpolar solvents
  29. lipds cannot?
    dissolve in water bc water is a polar solvent
  30. 4 classes of lipids?
    • triglycerides
    • phospholipids
    • waxes
    • steroids
  31. triglycerides are?
    • fats and oils
    • glycerol
    • 3 fatty acids
  32. on a triglyceride, where is glycerol found? 3 fatty acids?
    glycerol is the center and the 3 fatty acid tails are connected to it
  33. functions of triglycerides?
    • store energy
    • insulation
    • protection
  34. asymmetrical molecule that is an important component of cell membranes
    phospholipids
  35. soluble in water
    hydrophilic
  36. nonpolar side insoluble in water
    hydrophobic
  37. main molecule in cell membranes?
    phospholipids
  38. waxes are?
    • fatty acids + alcohol
    • protection
    • structure
  39. bees build stuff out of?
    wax
  40. steroids have?
    • 4 carbon rings + side group
    • many hormones
  41. important components of hormones?
    chemical regulators
  42. the variable component in an amino acid is the?
    • r group or side group
    • *changes with amino acid
  43. how man diff kinds of amino acids are there?
    20
  44. in glycine, the R group is?
    an H atom
  45. bond that holds amino acids together
    peptide bond
  46. multiple peptide bonds, make up long chain
    polypeptides
  47. in proteins what is critical for polypeptides?
    shape is critical in function
  48. need some body fat for?
    insulation
  49. what acts as an insulator to maintain constant internal temperature
    fat
  50. all amino acids are made up of ?
    • central carbon unit
    • attach amino group (nitrogen)
    • acid group (pair of oxygen atoms)
    • hydrogen
  51. primary structure of proteins?
    gives correct amino acids in order
  52. when you change the primary structure what happens?
    it effects all structures after it
  53. secondary structure of proteins does what?
    coils
  54. tertiary structure of proteins does what
    folding
  55. quaternary structure of proteins ?
    haveĀ 2 or more polypeptides
  56. for every chemical reaction, these an?
    enzyme
  57. proteins are used as
    enzymes
  58. molecules that effects chemical reactions
    enzymes
  59. enzyme names often end in ?
    -ase
  60. enzymes have control of?
    all biochemical reactions
  61. enzyme that does not end is -ase?
    pepsin
  62. used to break down proteins
    pepsin
  63. additional functions of proteins?
    • structure
    • gene regulation
    • hormones
    • pigments
    • buffers
    • antibodies
  64. complex molecules?
    hormones
  65. imparts color (Hair, eyes, skin etc)?
    pigments
  66. pH sensitive, keeps concentration of hydrogen ions constant
    buffers
  67. body defensive system
    antibodies
  68. most body parts are made of ?
    • protein
    • **main building block
  69. properties of nucleic acids?
    • self replicating
    • encoded with information
  70. Types of nucleic acids
    • DNA
    • RNA
  71. store hereditary info?
    nucleic acids
  72. info is stored here, but can not do anything with it
    DNA
  73. uses the info that the DNA carries
    RNA
  74. RNA helps to ?
    build proteins

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