A&P exam 1 (part 2)
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A&P exam 1 (part 2)
organic chemisty anatomy physiology powerpoints
organic chemistry cell structure and function a and p 1 fall 2014
ex of carbs
ex of lipids
ex of proteins
nucleic acids ex?
DNA and RNA
all contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
all have a carbon backbone
has 4 valence electrons and can form 4 covalent bonds
ex of organic molecule
long carbon changes
if you add ___ to hydrocarbons, then you have an organic compound
ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen ?
primary source of energy
chemical energy is stored in bonds, how do you extract that energy?
break the bonds
formula for glucose ?
glucose + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H20 + 686 Kcal
energy storage compounds
glucose + fructose? ex?
glucose + glucose? ex?
glucose + galactose? ex?
polysaccharides are used for?
polysaccharides store what in plants?
polysaccharides store what in animals?
what do polysaccharides use for structure?
glycocalyx (cell membranes)
how do humans break down cellulose?
bacteria in our bodies break it down bc we cannot break it down ourselves
how do animals store energy
in the form of glycogen
associated with the cell membrane?
properties of lipids?
not soluble in polar solvents
soluble in nonpolar solvents
dissolve in water bc water is a polar solvent
4 classes of lipids?
fats and oils
3 fatty acids
on a triglyceride, where is glycerol found? 3 fatty acids?
glycerol is the center and the 3 fatty acid tails are connected to it
functions of triglycerides?
asymmetrical molecule that is an important component of cell membranes
soluble in water
nonpolar side insoluble in water
main molecule in cell membranes?
fatty acids + alcohol
bees build stuff out of?
4 carbon rings + side group
important components of hormones?
the variable component in an amino acid is the?
r group or side group
*changes with amino acid
how man diff kinds of amino acids are there?
in glycine, the R group is?
an H atom
bond that holds amino acids together
multiple peptide bonds, make up long chain
in proteins what is critical for polypeptides?
shape is critical in function
need some body fat for?
what acts as an insulator to maintain constant internal temperature
all amino acids are made up of ?
central carbon unit
attach amino group (nitrogen)
acid group (pair of oxygen atoms)
primary structure of proteins?
gives correct amino acids in order
when you change the primary structure what happens?
it effects all structures after it
secondary structure of proteins does what?
tertiary structure of proteins does what
quaternary structure of proteins ?
have 2 or more polypeptides
for every chemical reaction, these an?
proteins are used as
molecules that effects chemical reactions
enzyme names often end in ?
enzymes have control of?
all biochemical reactions
enzyme that does not end is -ase?
used to break down proteins
additional functions of proteins?
imparts color (Hair, eyes, skin etc)?
pH sensitive, keeps concentration of hydrogen ions constant
body defensive system
most body parts are made of ?
**main building block
properties of nucleic acids?
encoded with information
Types of nucleic acids
store hereditary info?
info is stored here, but can not do anything with it
uses the info that the DNA carries
RNA helps to ?