A&P exam 1 (part 3)

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melissag94
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282576
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A&P exam 1 (part 3)
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2014-09-09 21:37:43
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cell structure function fall 2014
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cell structure and function Fall 2014
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  1. how many types of cells are there?
    200
  2. common features of a cell?
    • plasma membrane
    • cytoplasm
    • organelles
  3. asymmetrical molecules that make up plasma membrane
    phospholipids
  4. part of phospholipid attracted to water
    hydrophilic phosphate head
  5. part of phospholipid that repels water
    hydrophobic fatty acid tails
  6. build double layer or phospholipids that includes proteins
    phospholipid bilayer
  7. act as channels through the phospholipid bilayer
    embedded proteins
  8. embedded proteins indicate?
    what gets in and goes out
  9. made up of 2 subunits
    free ribosomes
  10. 2 subunits that free ribosomes are made up of?
    • rna
    • protein
  11. when cell is actually making proteins its called
    polyribosomes
  12. RNA is involved in
    protein synthesis
  13. functions of ribosomes?
    • synthesize proteins
    • internal use of cell
  14. membrane bounded organelle that has a phospholipid bilayer
    • rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • RER
  15. function of RER?
    assembly and transport of proteins for export (secretion)
  16. cells make the products, but it is?
    transported and used somewhere else in the body by the RER
  17. membrane bounded organelle that forms extensive networks in cells
    smooth e r
  18. the smooth ER does not
    manufacture proteins because it has no ribosomes
  19. the smooth er is?
    very usueful to cells for many different things
  20. functions of smooth ER?
    • detoxification
    • steroid production
    • muscle contraction
  21. removal of harmful substances from the body done by the SER? what specific cell uses this?
    • detoxification
    • Liver cells
  22. what cells use SER for steroid production?
    glandular cells
  23. what cells use muscle contraction of SER?
    muscle cells
  24. general functions of SER
    • storage
    • transport
  25. internal highways inside the cell
    SER
  26. 4 parts of mitochondrion structure?
    • outer membrane
    • inner membrane
    • cristae
    • matrix
  27. mitochondrion?
    bounded by 2 membranes, both are phospholipid bilayers
  28. cristae?
    • in mitochondrion
    • folds in inner membrane
  29. function of mitochondrion?
    • transform unusable energy to its useable form
    • Krebs cycle
    • electron transport system
  30. in mitochondria, the Krebs cycle takes place in
    the matrix
  31. Krebs cycle?
    create useable energy
  32. the electron transport system in the mitochondrion occurs where?
    cristae
  33. structure of lysosome?
    membrane bound sac (organelle)
  34. what is found inside lysosome?
    hydrolytic enzymes
  35. hydrolytic enzymes?
    • found inside lysosomes
    • digestive enzymes
    • cell produces them in advance
  36. functions of lysosome?
    • break down worn out organelles
    • destroy ingested particles
    • phagocytosis
  37. cells inject bacteria to destroy it
    phagocytosis
  38. Golgi structure?
    • membrane bounded
    • stack of 4-8 hollow discs
  39. function of Golgi?
    • packaging for export (secretion)
    • proteins (w/RER)
    • lipids (w/SER)
    • lysosomes
  40. what organelle puts things together?
    Golgi
  41. the Golgi is the center for?
    • packaging
    • similar by an assembly line
  42. structure of centrioles?
    • microtubules (9 triplets)
    • pairs (perpendicular)
  43. centrioles are not bound by ?
    a membrane
  44. always come in pairs
    centrioles
  45. pairs of centrioles are?
    always at right angles to each other
  46. what are centrioles made of?
    microtubules or straw like structures
  47. function of centrioles?
    organize mitotic spindles during cell division
  48. centrioles are involved in?
    cell division meaning theyre located near the nucleus
  49. centrioles organize what?
    the mitotic spindle
  50. filaments are not an ?
    organ, they are a structure
  51. actin is a ?
    protein
  52. microfilaments?
    most common filament, threadlike
  53. actin in a muscle cell can?
    change shape of cell
  54. can occur individually or in bundles
    microfilaments
  55. reticular fibers are made of?
    collagen
  56. microfilaments can cause?
    muscles to contract because it is thinner
  57. thickest because of space in center
    microtubules
  58. microtubules help to ?
    form highways
  59. 3 forms of filaments?
    • mircofilaments
    • reticular fibers
    • mircotubules
  60. microtubules help with?
    • skeletal
    • transport
    • support
  61. largest structure in the cell
    nucleus
  62. 2 membranes of nucleus?
    • nuclear envelope
    • nuclear pores
  63. holes of portals on the nucleus
    nuclear pores
  64. house DNA
    nucleus
  65. function of nucleus
    • DNA
    • hereditary info
  66. when DNA is spread out?
    chromatin
  67. when DNA moves together?
    chromosomes
  68. function of nucleolus?
    has ribosomal DNA
  69. DNA carries?
    genetic info
  70. where are genes located?
    in chromosomes
  71. how many chromosomes to conceive?
    46 chromosomes or 23 pairs
  72. inside the nucleus
    nucleolus
  73. ribosomes are used for?
    protein synthesis
  74. what is found in the nucleolus
    • DNA that codes for ribosome
    • many copies of ribosomes
  75. cytoplasmic inclusions are not ?
    an organelle
  76. examples of cytoplasmic inclusions
    • glycogen
    • lipid droplets
    • melanin
  77. glycogen makes?
    carb
  78. melanin?
    pigment that imparts color
  79. clusters?
    glycogen
  80. do not dissolve in the cytoplasm
    liquid droplets
  81. thick elastic fluid made of water and organic and inorganic compounds
    cytoplasm
  82. why is a membrane important to the cytoplasm ?
    to keep the cytoplasm together

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