Ecology Glossary Terms Chapter 1

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Ecology Glossary Terms Chapter 1
2014-09-17 21:50:10
Science,Ecology,Glossary Terms
Chapter 1 Ecology Glossary Terms
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  1. Ecosystem
    - a community of plants, animals and smaller organisms that live, feed, reproduce and interact in the same area or environment

    EXAMPLE: forest, ocean/sea, tundra, pond, arctic and puddle
  2. Sustainable Ecosystem
    - an ecosystem that is capable of withstanding pressure and giving support to a variety of organisms

    EXAMPLE: birds that live in Canada in the summer will begin to migrate somewhere warmer for the winter and on their way they must adapt to different ecosystems
  3. Biotic
    - the living (or recently living) parts of an ecosystem

    EXAMPLE: plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms

    TYPES: symbiosis (interactions between species that live closely), predation (one organism consumes the other), competition (species compete for resources)
  4. Abiotic
    - the non-living parts of an ecosystem

    EXAMPLE: air (oxygen), water, chemical nutrients, light and soil
  5. Lithosphere
    - the hard part of the Earth's surface

    EXAMPLE: rock, crust, soil and stone
  6. Hydrosphere
    - all the water found on Earth

    EXAMPLE: lakes, rivers, oceans and ground water
  7. Atmosphere
    -the layer of gases above Earth's surface
  8. Biosphere
    - the regions of Earth where living organisms exist; not separate from other abiotic spheres

    EXAMPLE: environments in water, soil, air that organisms live in
  9. Nutrients
    - a chemical that is essential to living things and is cycled through ecosystems
  10. Eutrophication
    - a process in which nutrient levels in aquatic ecosystems increase, leading to an increase in the populations of primary producers

    EXAMPLE: when fertilizer runs off farm a farmland into water algae blooms which causes plants to die due to reduced light and reduces oxygen so fish also die off
  11. Photosynthesis
    - a process that changes solar energy into chemical energy

    EQUATION: carbon dioxide + water (light and chlorophyll)= glucose and oxygen

    CHEMICAL EQUATION: 6C0²+6H²0↦C6H¹²06+60²

  12. Trophic Levels
    - a category of organisms that is defined by how the organisms gain their energy

    NOTE: food chains show trophic levels in ecosystems and pyramids show how energy moves through trophic levels

    TYPES: primary producers (make their own food; plants), consumers (must eat other organisms to survive)

  13. Biomass
    - the total mass of living organisms in a defined group or area
  14. Trophic Efficiency
    - a measure of the amount of energy or biomass transferred from one trophic level to the next higher trophic level

    NOTE: there will always be less than 100% passed on as not all of the lower organisms are eaten, not all is digested and the energy is lost as heat (only about 10% is passed on)
  15. Bioaccumulation
    - a process in which materials, especially toxins, are ingested by an organism at a rate greater than they are eliminated

    • NOTE: DDT & PCB's
  16. Biomagnification
    - the increase in the concentration of a toxin as it moves from one trophic level to the next
  17. Cellular Respiration
    - a process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the presence of oxygen

    NOTE: it is the most common and efficient way to break down energy from glucose
  18. Fermentation
    - a process that releases energy from organic molecules, especially carbohydrates, in the absence of oxygen
  19. Greenhouse Gases
    - are atmospheric gases that prevent heat from leaving the atmosphere, thus increasing the temperature of the atmosphere

    EXAMPLE: water vapour, methane, carbon dioxide
  20. Greenhouse Effect
    - the warming of Earth as a result of greenhouse gases, which trap some of the energy that would otherwise leave Earth

    FUN FACT: it is called greenhouse effect because the gases trap the Earth's heat just like the glass traps the heat in a greenhouse
  21. Acid Precipitation
    - rain, snow, or fog that is unnaturally acidic due to gases in the atmosphere that react with water to form acids

    NOTE: when you burn fossil fuels it releases nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide which combine with water to form sulfuric acid