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describe the contributions pythagoras made to the greek understanding of music
- mathematical understanding of sound wave ratios to ancient Greek society.
- strings vibrated at different rates for different intervals: an octave vibrated at 2:1, a
- perfect fifth at 3:2, a perfect fourth at 4:3, and a whole tone at 9:8.
- These intervals became the basis for the tetrachord and Greek octave/two-octave scale.
- Pythagorean tuning consisted of instruments tuned to perfect octaves and perfect fifths
- rather than thirds and sixths.
- endured until the Renaissance Era.
compare leonius and perotinus
- Worked in notre dame school in 12th c
- Based on a Gradual
- Lower voice tenor
- Voice part exchange
- Wrote Viderunt omnes
- Mass for Christmas Day
- Begins with organum style
- Wrote magnus
- liber organi – nearly 100 2-voice organa
- Settings of gradual&alleluia
- To make high feasts more splendid
Leonius music characteristics
- Solo sections = polyphonic
- Switches back and forth
- Upper voice duplum
- Use of rhythmic mode, more articulated rhythms
- Use of discant – upper and tenor voices move at
- same rate and have clearly defined rhythms
what did perotinus write
- Edited the magnus
- liber organi & Viderunt omnes
Perotinus music characteristics
- Polyphonic works more complex
- +triplum and quadruplim
- Dissonances precede consonances
- Discant style alternates w/ sections of organal style
- recipical and interchangeable musical phrases
- Repeated phrases, restated phrases at dif pitch levels
Guillaume de Machut’s career
- Last trouvere
- Composed messe de nostre dame
- 4 voices spanning 2 octaves
- many different rhythms and dissonances
- 6 mvmts
how is machut's secular music dif from troubadors/trouveres?
- no pre-existing latin tenor
- all voices are newly composed
- includes the ballade, rondeau, and virelai