Archeaology and prehistory
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acquiring objects for the sake of other than studying such as monetary value and aesthetic qualities
study of human cultures, behaviors, and material remains in order to reconstruct past cultures and to place in chronological known events
The study of knowledge itself…i.e.
how do we know what we know?
- - (556-539 BCE)
- -last king of the neobabylonion empire
- - was coined the first person to use archaeology bc of his interest in looking to past/ancient things to answer questions of the past.
- - religious and enthusiastic about worshiping his god which led him to want to rebuild the ruined temples of ancient babylon in search for inscriptions
- - 484-425 BCE
- -known as the father of history bc he set the pace for history to be written
- - wrote about the Greco-Persian wars and the history of the people
- - Also known as the father of lies because he wrote about things that were not true and were based off of rumors and folktales. He also looked to people to ask about accounts of things for his writings.
- -135-86 BCE
- - first great chinese historian for Hahn imperial court
- - aka the grand historian
- -Wrote about their Hx to record their place in the middle kingdom
- - known for writing the "shiji" which is a historical record of the history of china
Carl Von Linne
- - 1707-1778
- - Father of taxonomy
- - Swedish botonist and zoologist
- - created the taxonomic system (naming of organisms) that remains today
- - responsible for way animals, plants, humans, and primates are grouped
- - 1712-1778
- - lived in times preceding the french revolution
- - enlightenment philosopher
- - had political and religious influence
- - influenced anthropology by asking how groups of people moved up in societal ranks
- - Coined the term "noble savage"
- A uniformitarianism
- used a geological approach stating that certain forces shape the natural world around us through - wind rain and erosion
- introduced concept of deep time - geological events are more time scaled than human lives.
- james hutton came up with these ideas, lyell rediscovered it
Charles Darwin & Alfred Russell Wallace
- 1809-1882 & 1823-1913
- came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection
- applied idea of natural selection to a sociological perspective
- all living things have variations and no two species are alike and nor two species in that category are alike
- 1820 - 1903
- philosopher and sociologist
- developed & applied evolution theory to other academic disciplines
- pioneered the idea that society is an evolving organism
- all things progress from simple to complex
- coined the term survival of the fittest
Christian Jurgensen Thomson
- danish archaeologist came from wealthy family
- became agent of national museum of denmark therefore had access to their collections
- studied and arranged his findings into a typology
- did a lot of correlation and had good provenance (good notes of where objects were found) as well as situation objects within a series (seriation)
- placing things into a system is important
Royal Geographical Society
- founded in 1830
- formed in England
- tasked at mapping the world
- source of excitement in the 19th century
- century of emancipation & active debate of studying the world
- English explorer
- worked for the royal geographical society
- set out to find the source of the Nile
- after months of being unheard from henry mortan stanley set out to look for livingstone
- stanley found livingstone and uttered the famous phrase "Dr. Livingstone I presume?"
- English explorer who mapped parts of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru.
- Sourced the Rio Verde and Heath Rivers
- disappeared in the Amazon jungle in 1925 while searching for a legendary “City of Z”
- German businessman/archaeologists (loose term due to his lack of training)
- set out to systematically determine the location of troy, the setting of the trojan war.
- Found it it on the site of Hissarlik in Turkey
- Also discovered Mycenae
- accsed of having a self serving behavior
- accused of lying where things were found; difficult to determine his truthfulness
- believed ancient texts were historically accurate. Hence he named materials he found after names, places, & terms in the text.
- -Similar to Schliemann, but more systematic in his retrieval. Had better methods, documentation, better work
-continued a trend to look to material remains to authenticate information derived from ancient texts.
- - 1874 - 1939
- - hired by lord carnarvon to lead in an excavaton
- - Discovered tomb of Tutankhamun in 1922
- - a huge discovery; most intact and preserved tomb, materials, sarcophagus and mummy ever found.
- - carter actually set out to catalogue treasures - hes and antiquarian not an archaeologists although he is widely regarded as one in the media
direct fieldwork; study of people through participant observation ( more specific)
information extracted from an ethnography to present a broader viewpoint across cultures
- founder of american anthropolgy & 4 field approach
- Goal of anthropology is to objectively study human behavior
- done by rigorous fieldwork and analysis collecting a holistic approach
- criticized unilineal evolution
- 1st anthropological anthropologist
- puts emphasis on connecting material to culture
- american archaeologist who wanted to be anthropologist
- seeks to develop middle theory
- founder of processual archaeology
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