Peds Intro EXAM 1
Card Set Information
Peds Intro EXAM 1
LCCC NURSING PEDIATRICS
For Gosslin Exam 1
According to WHO, what is health?
Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well bring and not merely the absence of disease
What is infant mortality? What age dictates the kind of infant mortality?
Number of deaths per 1000 live births in the US
: <28 days of life
: 28 days to 1 yr
What is the biggest determinant of neonatal mortality?
The biggest determinant of neonatal mortality is low birth weight (LBW)
What is the highest cause of death for postnatals?
What are some other risk factors for infant mortality?
Short or long gestation
Maternal Age (younger or older)
At what age does child mortality start and what is the leading cause?
Child mortality starts at 1 yr of age
Unintentional injury is the leading cause, such as
: MV crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning, firearms
What is childhood morbidity and who is at risk?
May mean acute illness, chronic disease, or disability (this includes psych diagnoses in children)
Risk factors include
: homeless, poverty, chronicly ill, immigrants or adopted children, and children in daycare
What is family-centered care?
A system that recognizes the entire family as central to the child, including extended family
Supports, respects, encourages, and enhances the family's strength and competence
What are the three concepts of family-centered care?
Concept of ENABLING:Building family strengths
Concept of EMPOWERMENT
: Giving family control (or sense of control) over care
Concept of "atrauma care"
: Making Hospital care less traumatic (such as pain reduction during procedures)
What are some roles of the pediatric nurse?
Direct Care Provider
Health teacher- both prevention and promotion through anticipatory guidance
Support and counseling
Coordinator of services
Ethical Decision Making
What are some Rights of the Child according to the UN?
to be free from discrimination
to develop physically and mentally in freedom and dignity
to have a name and a nationality
to have adequate nutrition, housing, recreation, and medial services
to receive special treatment if handicapped
to receive love, understanding, and material security
to receive an education and develop his/her abilities
to be the first to receive protection in disaster
to be protected from neglect, cruelty, and exploitation
to be brought up in a spirit of friendship among people
What is a community?
A group of people living in a specific area (people may belong to a number of different communities, ie. school, work, neighborhood)
A system that includes children, families, the physical environment, educational facilities, and services
What is epidemiology and what is the epidemiologic triangle?
The science of population health applied to detection of mobidity and mortality
This is an important component in developing health programs according to needs
: measures the occurrence of new events in a population over time
: measuring existing events in a population over a time period
The Epidemiologic Triangle
consists of the host, the agent and environmental factors
-if we can disrupt a corner of the triangle, we have interrupted the disease process
What is primary prevention?
Interventions that PROTECT from disease or injury
Such as well child clinics, immunization programs, safety programs, sanitation measures
What is secondary prevention?
Promote EARLY DETECTION and treatment of illness
Efforts to PREVENT SPREAD of contagious diseases
Such as TB and lead screenings, isolation from communicable diseases, early intervention programs (such as head start)
What is tertiary prevention?
Interventions to OPTIMIZE FUNCTION for children with disability of chronic disease
Such as asthma management programs, rehabilitation programs, special education programs for children
What is a family?
Whatever a person makes it to be! (whoever the client says it is!)
Types of family:
-Affinal- marital relationship
Family of origin-family unit born into
What is the general family systems theory?
The family is a system that continually interacts with its members and the environment
emphasis on interaction
problems do not lie in one member but in the type of interactions used by the family
What is the family stress theory?
Families encounter stressors both predictable and unpredictable
With too many stressors for the family to cope adequately, a crisis occurs
Adaptations required change in family structure or interactions
What is the developmental theory of family?
Addresses predictable family change over time according to Duvalls family life cycle
(Beginning family, childbearing family, preschool children, school age children, adolescent children, launching family, middle age parents, retirement)
Family is a semi-closed system that interacts with larger social system
Age of the oldest child marks the stage transitions
What are some examples of family roles?
Parental roles, role of the extended family, child roles
Roles are learned through socialization
Roles are impacted by culture as well
What are some characteristics of the first born child?
more socially anxious
identify more with parents
greater parental epectations
What are some characteristics of the middle born child?
Praised less often
higher demand to help with chores
more adaptable and compromise
What are some characteristics of the youngest born child?
identify more with peer group
less dependent than firstborn
What factors affect transition to parenthood?
: social expectation
often times this is limited, you parent like your parents
Age of parents (18-35 optimal ages)
What are the three different parenting styles and what are they like?
Authoritative or Dictorial
: Parents are strict about rules and do not give leeway or explanations. Child may become shy, sensitive, loyal, and honest
Permissive or laissez faire
: parents have no rules or consequences for children. Children may grow up to be irresponsible, disrespectful and aggressive
Authoritarian or Democrative
: Parents have explanations for rules and make parameters with family input. Children become self-reliant, assertive, and have a high self-esteem
Why is it important to set limits for children?
Establishes rules for behavior
Positive and Necessary
Serves to help children
: test limits of control, achieve in appropariate areas and levels, channel undesirable feelings constructively, protect selves from danger, learn socially acceptable behavior
What is the importance of discipline and what are some effective disciplinary methods?
It minimizes misbehavior
Reasoning, behavior modification (through positive and then negative reinforcement), strategy of consequences, time outs (minutes to match age of child) and corporal punishment (open handed spanking)