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According to WHO, what is health?
Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well bring and not merely the absence of disease
What is infant mortality? What age dictates the kind of infant mortality?
- Number of deaths per 1000 live births in the US
- Neonatal Period: <28 days of life
- Postnatal Period: 28 days to 1 yr
What is the biggest determinant of neonatal mortality?
- The biggest determinant of neonatal mortality is low birth weight (LBW)
What is the highest cause of death for postnatals?
What are some other risk factors for infant mortality?
- Male Gender
- Short or long gestation
- Maternal Age (younger or older)
- Maternal Education
At what age does child mortality start and what is the leading cause?
- Child mortality starts at 1 yr of age
- Unintentional injury is the leading cause, such as: MV crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning, firearms
What is childhood morbidity and who is at risk?
- May mean acute illness, chronic disease, or disability (this includes psych diagnoses in children)
- Risk factors include: homeless, poverty, chronicly ill, immigrants or adopted children, and children in daycare
What is family-centered care?
- A system that recognizes the entire family as central to the child, including extended family
- Supports, respects, encourages, and enhances the family's strength and competence
What are the three concepts of family-centered care?
- Concept of ENABLING:Building family strengths
- Concept of EMPOWERMENT: Giving family control (or sense of control) over care
- Concept of "atrauma care": Making Hospital care less traumatic (such as pain reduction during procedures)
What are some roles of the pediatric nurse?
- Direct Care Provider
- Health teacher- both prevention and promotion through anticipatory guidance
- Support and counseling
- Coordinator of services
- Family Advocate
- Ethical Decision Making
What are some Rights of the Child according to the UN?
- to be free from discrimination
- to develop physically and mentally in freedom and dignity
- to have a name and a nationality
- to have adequate nutrition, housing, recreation, and medial services
- to receive special treatment if handicapped
- to receive love, understanding, and material security
- to receive an education and develop his/her abilities
- to be the first to receive protection in disaster
- to be protected from neglect, cruelty, and exploitation
- to be brought up in a spirit of friendship among people
What is a community?
- A group of people living in a specific area (people may belong to a number of different communities, ie. school, work, neighborhood)
- A system that includes children, families, the physical environment, educational facilities, and services
What is epidemiology and what is the epidemiologic triangle?
- The science of population health applied to detection of mobidity and mortality
- This is an important component in developing health programs according to needs
- Incidence: measures the occurrence of new events in a population over time
- Prevalence: measuring existing events in a population over a time period
- The Epidemiologic Triangle consists of the host, the agent and environmental factors
- -if we can disrupt a corner of the triangle, we have interrupted the disease process
What is primary prevention?
- Interventions that PROTECT from disease or injury
- Such as well child clinics, immunization programs, safety programs, sanitation measures
What is secondary prevention?
- Promote EARLY DETECTION and treatment of illness
- Efforts to PREVENT SPREAD of contagious diseases
- Such as TB and lead screenings, isolation from communicable diseases, early intervention programs (such as head start)
What is tertiary prevention?
- Interventions to OPTIMIZE FUNCTION for children with disability of chronic disease
- Such as asthma management programs, rehabilitation programs, special education programs for children
What is a family?
- Whatever a person makes it to be! (whoever the client says it is!)
- Types of family:
- -Consanguineous-blood relationship
- -Affinal- marital relationship
- Family of origin-family unit born into
What is the general family systems theory?
- The family is a system that continually interacts with its members and the environment
- Circular causality
- emphasis on interaction
- problems do not lie in one member but in the type of interactions used by the family
What is the family stress theory?
- Families encounter stressors both predictable and unpredictable
- With too many stressors for the family to cope adequately, a crisis occurs
- Adaptations required change in family structure or interactions
What is the developmental theory of family?
- Addresses predictable family change over time according to Duvalls family life cycle
- (Beginning family, childbearing family, preschool children, school age children, adolescent children, launching family, middle age parents, retirement)
- Family is a semi-closed system that interacts with larger social system
- Age of the oldest child marks the stage transitions
What are some examples of family roles?
- Parental roles, role of the extended family, child roles
- Roles are learned through socialization
- Roles are impacted by culture as well
What are some characteristics of the first born child?
- Achievement oriented
- more dominant
- more self-disciplined
- more socially anxious
- identify more with parents
- greater parental epectations
What are some characteristics of the middle born child?
- Praised less often
- higher demand to help with chores
- more adaptable and compromise
What are some characteristics of the youngest born child?
- identify more with peer group
- less dependent than firstborn
- less tense
- more affectionate
What factors affect transition to parenthood?
- Motivation: social expectation
- Preparation:often times this is limited, you parent like your parents
- Age of parents (18-35 optimal ages)
- Father's involvement
- Support systems
What are the three different parenting styles and what are they like?
- Authoritative or Dictorial: Parents are strict about rules and do not give leeway or explanations. Child may become shy, sensitive, loyal, and honest
- Permissive or laissez faire: parents have no rules or consequences for children. Children may grow up to be irresponsible, disrespectful and aggressive
- Authoritarian or Democrative: Parents have explanations for rules and make parameters with family input. Children become self-reliant, assertive, and have a high self-esteem
Why is it important to set limits for children?
- Establishes rules for behavior
- Positive and Necessary
- Serves to help children: test limits of control, achieve in appropariate areas and levels, channel undesirable feelings constructively, protect selves from danger, learn socially acceptable behavior
What is the importance of discipline and what are some effective disciplinary methods?
- It minimizes misbehavior
- Reasoning, behavior modification (through positive and then negative reinforcement), strategy of consequences, time outs (minutes to match age of child) and corporal punishment (open handed spanking)