Chapter 2 - Matter and energy Chem 105

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SalgadoJE12
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Chapter 2 - Matter and energy Chem 105
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2014-09-11 17:54:37
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  1. Matter
    Anything that has mass and occupies space
  2. Matter Classifications
    • Pure substance 
    • Mixture
  3. Pure substance
    Types of matter that have fixed composition

    • Element 
    • Compound
  4. Mixture
    Types of matter that consist of two or more substances that are not chemically combined 

    • Homogeneous 
    • Heterogeneous
  5. Element
    Any element that is compose of only one atom
  6. Compound
    two or more elements that always have the same proportion
  7. homogeneous mixture
    composition is uniform throughout

    e.g milk
  8. Heterogeneous mixture
    composition varies 

    e.g water and oil
  9. States of matter
    • Solid 
    • Liquid
    • Gas
  10. Solid
    • Atoms/molecules are tightly packed 
    • Definite volume and shape
    • Slow particle movement 
    • Interaction of particles is very strong
  11. Liquid
    • Definite volume but no shape
    • Atoms are close but able to slide pass each others
    • Moderate particle movement 
    • Strong interaction
  12. Gas
    • No shape or volume 
    • Space between atoms is great
    • Essentially no interaction
    • Fast movement
  13. Physical properties of matter
    • Characteristics that can be observe or measured 
    • shape, state, temp., density, color, smell, etc..
  14. Physical change
    Substance changes state or shape but composition stays the same
  15. Chemical Properties
    • Any chemical change brought by chemical property 
    • --Substance ability to interact with other substances 
    • --Involve new substance forming as interaction occurs 
    • --Difficult to recognize without experimenting
  16. Chemical changes
    • Causes new compounds to form which have :
    • -Different composition
    • -Different physical properties
    • -Different chemical properties 
    • Monitor in experiment
  17. Energy
    • Ability to do work
    • Involves in making and breaking chemical bonds
  18. Three types of energy
    • Kinetic
    • Potential 
    • Thermal (Heat)
  19. Kinetic
    energy in motion
  20. Potential
    stored energy
  21. Thermal (heat)
    movement of particles in matter includes transfers
  22. 1000J
    1kJ
  23. 1kJ
    1000cal
  24. 1000cal
    1 Cal
  25. cal
    the energy to heat 1g of water by 10C
  26. Ti
    Titanium
  27. Sn
    Tin
  28. S
    Sulfur
  29. Sr
    Strontium
  30. Na
    Sodium
  31. Ag
    Silver
  32. Si
    Silicon
  33. Ra
    Radium
  34. K
    Potassium
  35. Pt
    Platinum
  36. P
    Phosphorus
  37. O
    Oxygen
  38. N
    Nitrogen
  39. Ni
    Nickel
  40. Ne
    Neon
  41. Hg
    Mercury
  42. Mn
    Manganese
  43. Mg
    Magnesium
  44. Li
    Lithium
  45. Pb
    Lead
  46. Fe
    Iron
  47. I
    Iodine
  48. H
    Hydrogen
  49. He
    Helium
  50. Au
    Gold
  51. F
    Flourine
  52. Co
    Cobalt
  53. Cl
    Chlorine
  54. C
    Carbon
  55. Ca
    Calcium
  56. Cd
    Cadmium
  57. Br
    Bromine
  58. B
    Baron
  59. Ba
    Barium
  60. As
    Arsenic
  61. Ar
    Argon
  62. Al
    Aluminum
  63. U
    Uranium
  64. Zn
    Zinc
  65. Fahrenheit
    Uses a mixture of NaCl and water to scale
  66. Celsius
    Uses water to scale
  67. Kelvin
    absolute zero
  68. Celsius to Kelvins
  69. Specific Heat
    the amount of heat that raises the temperature of exactly 1g  of substance by 10C
  70. Specific heat Unit
  71. Determine the heat loss or gain
  72. Heat of fusion
    the amount of heat releases by 1g of liquid as it freezes or changes to solid state 

    melting/FREEZING
  73. Heat of vaporization
    • The amount of energy required to change one gram of a liquid to gas 
    • Evaporation
    • Condensation
  74. Sublimation
    Solid changes to  a gas state
  75. Deposition
    Gas changes to a solid state
  76. Condesation
    Gas to liquid state
  77. Evaporation
    Liquid to gas
  78. Melting
    Solid to liquid
  79. Freezing
    Liquid to solid

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