sociology chapter 1 and 2 vocab

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sociology chapter 1 and 2 vocab
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  1. a status to which one enters; voluntary status
    voluntary status
  2. the study of human society
    sociology
  3. the ability to see the connections between our personal experience and the larger forces of history
    sociological imagination
  4. a complex group of interdependent positions that perform a social role and reproduce themselves over time
    social institution
  5. suggestion that sociologists approach social behavior from the perspective of those engaging in it. German for "understanding"
    versteben
  6. the sense of normlessness resulting from drastic changes in living conditions or arrangements
    anomie
  7. a strain within sociology that believes the social world can be described and predicted by certain describable relationships
    positive sociology
  8. the mechanism coined by DuBois in which you constantly maintain two behavioral scripts
    double consciousness
  9. the theory that various social institutions and processes in society exist to serve important function to keep society running
    functionalism
  10. the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general
    conflict theory
  11. a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations and assumptions form the basic motivations behind peoples actions
    interactionism
  12. an entity that exists because people behave as if it exists and whose existence is perpetuated and people and social institutions act in accordance with the widely agreed upon formal rules or informal norms of behavior associated with that entity
    social construction
  13. seeks to understand local interactional contexts, its methods of choice are ethnographic, generally including participant observations and in-depth interviews
    microsociology
  14. generally concerned with social dynamics at a higher level of analysis. that is across the bigger picture of society
    macro-sociology
  15. approaches that social scientists use for investigating the answers to questions
    research methods
  16. methods that seek to obtain information about social world that is already in or can be converted to numeric form
    quantitative methods
  17. methods to collect information on the social world that can not be converted into numbers but is on a more personal scale
    qualitative methods
  18. this research approach is very precise and uses the scientific method
    deductive approach
  19. this research approach starts with observations and then forms a theory
    inductive approach
  20. two variables effect eachother such as health and income or vice versa
    correlation
  21. the idea that change in one aspect causes change in another
    causality
  22. a situation in which A results in a change in B but really B is causing A
    reverse causality
  23. the outcome the researcher is trying to explain
    dependent variable
  24. a measured factor that the researcher believes has an impact on the dependent variable.
    independent variable
  25. an educated guess or a proposed relationship between two variables
    hypothesis
  26. the extent to which an instrument measures what it is intended to measure
    validity
  27. a set of beliefs, traditions, and practices
    culture
  28. a belief that ones own culture or group is superior to others
    ethnocentrism
  29. values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms
    non-material culture
  30. everything that is part of our constructed, physical environment, including technology
    material culture
  31. an understanding of cause and effect
    ideology
  32. taking into account the differences of culture without passing judgement
    cultural relativism
  33. modes of behavior and understanding that is not universal (Mead)
    cultural scripts
  34. the distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns of a particular group in society
    subculture
  35. moral beliefs
    values
  36. how values tell us to behave
    norms
  37. the way an individual processes values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society
    socialization
  38. any formats or vehicles that carry, present, or communicate information
    media
  39. a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary consent of the masses
    hegemony
  40. the steady acquiring of material possessions with the idea that this will lead to happiness
    consumerism
  41. the act of turning media against themselves
    culture jamming
  42. the process when ones sense of values and beliefs are changed
    re-socialization
  43. an institution where one is totally immersed into a controlled day to day life with activities being the same
    total institution
  44. a recognizable social position
    status
  45. the duties and behaviors that is expexted of someone who holds a particular status
    role
  46. the unsuccessful completion of roles and not filling the job one hundred percent
    role strain
  47. the tensions caused by demands of two or more roles pertaining to different status
    role conflict
  48. all the statuses one holds simultaneously
    status set
  49. a status into which one is born
    ascribed status
  50. a status into which one enters
    achieved status
  51. the status that over rides all of the others
    master status
  52. a set of behavioral norms set by ones status as a male or female
    gender roles
  53. the view that social life is just a theatrical performance (Erving Goffman)
    dramaturgical theory
  54. the esteem in which an individual is held by others
    face
  55. the methods of the people by Garfinkel
    ethnomethodology
  56. a group of two (simmel)
    dyad
  57. A group of three or more (Simmel)
    triad
  58. member of triad who attempts to resolve conflict between the other two in the group (simmel)
    mediator
  59. The new third member of a triad who benefits from conflict between the other two members in  the group (simmel)
    Tertius Gaudens
  60. the role of a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two (simmel)
    divide et impera
  61. a group characterized by face to face interaction, a unifocal percpective, lack of formal arrangements, and a certain level of equality. (Simmel)
    small group
  62. a group that is similar to a small group but is multifocal (simmel)
    party
  63. A group characterized by the presence of a formal structure that mediates interaction and consequently status differentiation
    (simmel)
    large group
  64. social groups such as family or friends composed of intimate relationships that strongly influence eachother (H.C. Cooley)
    Primary groups
  65. groups marked by a means to and end, impersonal, instrumental relationships
    (Charles Horton Cooley)
    Secondary group
  66. another term for the powerful  group, the one you hold loyalty to (C.H. Cooley)
    in-groups
  67. another term for the stigmatized or less powerful group. the group you have conflict with (Cooley)
    out-group
  68. a group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups. people you want to be like (Cooley)
    reference group
  69. a set of relations- a set of dyads- held together by ties
    social network
  70. the information, knowledge of people, and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or otherwise leverage social networks. having many weak ties
    social capitol
  71. any social network that is defined by a common purpose and has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world
    organization
  72. a qualitative research method that seeks to uncover the meanings people give their behavior by observing social actions in practice (Haney)
    participant observation
  73. likelihood of obtaining the same results using the same methods or measure
    reliability
  74. the extent to which we can claim our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied
    generalizability
  75. the subset of the population from which you are actually collecting data
    sample
  76. an intensive investigation of one particular unit of analysis in order to describe it or uncover it mechanisms
    case study
  77. an ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from respondants
    survey
  78. a systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as written work, speech or film.
    content analysis

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