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science of body structures and the relationships amoung them.
the careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships.
the science of body functions - how the body parts work.
Includes atoms and molecules.
the smallest units of matter that participates in chemical reactions.
Atoms essential for maintaining life:
- 1. carbon (C)
- 2. hydrogen (H)
- 3. oxygen (O)
- 4. nitrogen (N)
- 5. phosphorus (P)
- 6. calcium (Ca)
- 7. sulfur (S)
two or more atoms joined together.
- Molecules combine to form cells, the basic structrual and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals. Smallest living units in the human body. Among the many kinds of cells in your body are:
- 1. muscle cells
- 2. nerve cells
- 3. epithelial cells
are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function.
4 Types of Tissues
- 1. Epithelial
- 2. Connective
- 3. Muscular
- 4. Nervous
covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs and cavities, and forms glands.
connects, supports, and protects body organs whle distributing blood vessels to other tissues.
contracts to make body parts move and generates heat.
carries information from one part of the body to another through nerve impulses.
structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes. ie stomach, skin, bones, heart, liver, lungs and brain
stomach: outer covering is a layer of epithelial tissue and connective tissue that reduces friction when the stomach moves and rubs against other organs. underneath are three layers of a type of musculare tissue called smooth muscle tissue, wh/ contractsto churn and mix forrd and then push it into the next digestive organ.
System Level (organ system level)
- consists of related organs w/ a common function. ie digestive system, wh/ breaks down and and absorbs food. Its organs include:
- 1. mouth
- 2. salivary glands
- 3. pharynx (throat)
- 4. esophogus (food tube)
- 5. stomach
- 6. small intestine
- 7. large intestine
- 8. liver
- 9. gallbladder
- 10. pancreas
- (some organs can belong to more than 1 system. ie pancreas also endocrine system)
Any living individual. All the parts of the human body functioning together constiture the total organism.
Integumentary System Components
- 1. skin & associated structures such as
- a. hair
- b. fingernails
- c. toenails
- d. sweat glands
- e. oil glands
Integumentary System Function
- 1. protects body
- 2. helps regulate temperature
- 3. eliminates some waste
- 4. helps make vitamin D
- 5. detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold
- 6. stores fat and provides insulation
Skeletal System Components
- 1. bones
- 2. joints of the body
- 3. associated cartilages.
Skeletal System Functions
- 1. supports and protects body
- 2. provides surface area for muscle attachements
- 3. aids body movements
- 4. houses cells that produce blood cells
- 5. stores minerals and lipids (fats)
Muscular System Components
skeletal muscle tissue - muscle usually attached to bonds (other muscle tissues include smooth and cardiac)
Muscular System Functions
- 1. participates in body movements, such as walking
- 2. maintains posture
- 3. produces heat
Nervous System Components
- 1. brain
- 2. spinal cord
- 3. nerves
- 4.special sense organs, such as eyes and ears
Nervous System Functions
- 1. generates action potentials (nerve impluses) to regulate body activities
- 2. detects changes in body's internal and external enviroments
- 3. interprets changes
- 4. respond by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions
Endocrine System Components
- Hormone-producing glands
- 1. pineal gland
- 2. hypothalamus
- 3. pituitary gland
- 4. thymus
- 5. thyroid gland
- 6. parathyroid glands
- 7. adrenal glands
- 8. pancreas
- 9. ovaries
- 10. testes
- (hormone producings cells in several other organs)
Endocrine System Functions
Regulates body activities by releasing hormones (chemical messengers transported in blood from endocrine gland or tissue to target organ).
chemical messengers transported in blood from endocrine gland or tissue to target organ
Cardiovascular System Components
- 1. Blood
- 2. Heart
- 3. Blood Vessels
Cardiovascular System Functions
- 1. heart pumps blood through blood vessels
- 2. blood carries
- a. oxygen and nutrients to cells
- b. carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells
- 3. helps regulate
- a. acid-base balance temperature
- b. water content of body fluids
- 3. blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels
Lymphatic System Components
- 1. Lymphatic fluid
- 2. Lymphatic vessels
- 3. Spleen
- 4. Thymus
- 5. Lymph nodes
- 6. Tonsils
- 7. Cells that carry out immune responses (B cells, T cells, and others)
Lymphatic System Function
- 1. returns proteins and fluid to blood
- 2. carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood
- 3. contains sites of maturation and proliferation of B cells and T cells that protect against disease-causing microbes
Respiratory System Components
- 1. Lungs (and airway passages listed below)
- 2. Pharynx (throat)
- 3. Larynx (voice box)
- 4. Trachea (windpipe)
- 5. Bronchial Tubes leading into and out of the lungs
Respiratory System Functions
- 1. transfers O2 from inhaled air to blood and CO2 from blood to exhaled air
- 2. helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids
- 3. air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produce sounds
Digestive System Components
- Organs of gastrointestinal tract:
- 1. Mouth
- 2. Pharynx (throat)
- 3. Esophagus (food tube)
- 4. Stomach
- 5. Small Intestines
- 6. Large Intestines
- 7. Anus
- Accessory Organs:
- 1. Salivary Glands
- 2. Liver
- 3. Gallbladder
- 4. Pancreas
Digestive System Functions
- 1. achieves physical & chemical breakdwon of food
- 2. absorbs nutrients
- 3. eliminates solid waste
Reproductive System Components
- 1. Gonads (testes/ovaries)
- 2. Uterine Tubes (fallopian tubes)
- 3. Uterus
- 4. Vagina
- 5. Mammary Glands
- 6. Epididymis
- 7. Ductus (vas deferens)
- 8. Seiminal Vesicles
- 9. Prostate
- 10. Penus
Reproductive System Function
- 1. gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism
- 2. gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes
- 3. associated organs tranport and store gametes
- 4. mammary glands produce milk
Urinary System Components
- 1. Kidneys
- 2. Ureters
- 3. Urinary Bladder
- 4. Urethra
Urinary System Functions
- 1. produces, stores, and eliminates urine
- 2. eliminates waste and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood
- 3. helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids
- 4. maintains body's mineral balance
- 5. helps regulate production of red blood cells
11 Systems of the Human Body
- 1. Integumentary
- 2. Skeletal
- 3. Muscular
- 4. Nervous
- 5. Endocrine
- 6. Cardiovascular
- 7. Lymphatic
- 8. Respiratory
- 9. Digestive
- 10. Reproductive
Basic Life Processes
- 1. Metabolism
- 2. Responsiveness
- 3. Movement
- 4. Growth
- 5. Differentiation
- 6. Reproduction
the sum of all chemical processes that occur in the body
A phase of metabolism. Breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components.
A phase of metabolism. The building up of complex chmicaal substances from smaller, simpler components.
- body's ability to detect and respond to changes.
- ie change in body temp, turning head toward a noise.
motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even tiny structures inside cells.
increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, or both.
the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state. Such precursor cells, which can devide and give rise to cells that undergo differentiation, are known as stem cells.
1. the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement, or 2. the production of a new individual.
the condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body's internal enviroment due to the constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes.
an important aspect of homeostatis is maintaining the volume and composition of body fluids.
dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals that are found inside cells as well as surrounging them.
Intracellular Fluid (ICF)
fluid within cells
Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
fluid outside body cells
ECF that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues. differs depending on where it occurs in the body.
ECF within blood vessels
ECF within lymphatic vessels
ECF in and around the brain and spinal cord
ECF in and around joints
Aqueous Humor and Vitreous Body
ECF of the eyes
Feedback System (or Feedback Loop)
is a cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is moinitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored, reevaluated and so on.
- is the monitored condition
- body temp, BP, bGl...
Stimulus in a Feedback System
any disruption that changes a controlled condition
3 basic components of a feedback system...
- 1. receptor
- 2. control center
- 3. effector
body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center via an afferent (toward) pathway in a feedback system. typically the input is in the form of nerve pulses or chemical signals.
sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained (set point), evaluates the input it receives from receptors, and generates output commands when they are needed. output typically occurs as nerve impulses, or hormones or other chemical signals. pathway is called an efferent pathway (away from).
is a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition.
Negative Feedback System
reverses a change in a controlled condition. ie BP increases... baroreceptors detect higher presure, baroreceptors send nerve impulses to brain. Brain sends nerve impulses to heart and blood vessels to slow down rate and dilate blood vessels.
Positive Feedback System
tends to strengthen or reinforce a change in one of the body's controlled conditions. the effector produces ap physiological response that adds to or reinforces the initial change in the controlled condition. The action of a positive feedback system continues until it is interrupted by some mechanism.
- child birth
- CONTROLLED CONDITION
- stretching of cervix
- stretch sensitive nerve cells in cervix
- input - nerve impulses
- CONTROL CENTER - BRAIN
- output - brain interprets input & releases oxytosin
- muscles in the wall of the uterus
- contract more forcefully
- babys body stretches the cervix more (interruption of cycle - the birth of baby decreases stretching of the cervix, thus breaking the positive feedback cycle)
- increased stretching of the cirvix causes the release of more oxytocin, wh/ results in more stretching of the cervix.