Applied Nutrition flashcards - week 1 and 2.txt

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Applied Nutrition flashcards - week 1 and 2.txt
2014-09-11 00:59:52
applied nutrition

applied nutrition
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  1. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) function
    • 1. As an ANTIOXIDANT: acts as electron DONOR to add electron to RADICAL to create stable molecule
    • ie- aids in REGULATION of hydrogen peroxide: creates H2O2 from superoxide
    • 2. Can also donate electrons to CREATE RADICALS
    • 3. Co-FACTOR for synthesis of: collagen, carnatine, epinephrine
    • co-factor for neurotransmitter enzyme by hydroxylating tyrosines
    • co-factor for collagen by helping modify prolines to proline hydroxylase
  2. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) properties
    • Fat soluble: stays in fat
    • WATER soluble: large amts will be excreted to urine
    • CANNOT be deficient in Vit C
  3. Ascorbic acid RDA
    • Men: 75mg/day
    • women: 90mg/day
  4. Collagen protein synthesis needs…
    • Vitamin C: turns PROLINE into —> proline HYDROXYLASE
    • this allows the BINDING of collagen to each other
  5. Superoxide dismutase role
    • ANTIOXIDANT: 1. Enzyme that PREVENTS superoxide formation
    • 2. Allows for fast production of H202 and O2 from 02- superoxides
    • This H202 then is allowed to enter the cell
  6. Hydrogen peroxide role
    Aids in REGULATION of signal transduction pathways
  7. What cells are the most radicals produced?
    • Neutrophils (and macrophages): that’s how they KILL things
    • Therefore they need the most antioxidants (ie; Vit. C)
  8. Worst radical!
    • Hydroxyl radical
    • Form when H202 and O2 react with —> O2-
  9. Main purposes of GLUCOSE..why is it needed??
    • 1. Forms triglycerides, which are the component of the phospholipids that are needed in membranes
    • 2. Needed for DNA synthesis
    • 3. Needed for NERVE cells
  10. Arachidonic acid
    • Omega-6 polyUNsat fatty acid
    • makes prostaglandins
  11. Diet deficiencies and epigenetic results
    Radical production, lack of Ca, lack of antioxidants, lack of H202: cause DEFICIENCIES of HYPERMETHYLATION…which lead to EPIGENETIC effects/changes
  12. Heart disease (atherosclerosis) cause
    • HYPERTROPHY response: due to cells normal response to ENHANCE the response of blood vessels
    • Lack of VIt. C enhances this atherosclerosis
    • Plaque formation: this is also seen in BABIES, thereby suggesting epigenetic effects
  13. Carbon’s role in H202 Regulation
    • Carbon can DONATE electrons to superoxide radicals, thereby reducing the amount of H202 produced
    • TOO MUCH carbon can cause harm when H202 is NEEDED
  14. role of ENZYME for radicals
    they make sure the proper ELECTRON acceptor or donor is close to the SUBSTRATE to allow for the RXN to occur
  15. FLUIDITY definition
    • Amt of MOVEMENT between a membrane: Based on the amount of saturated fatty acids
    • HIGH amt of UNSATURATED = HIGH movement thru membrane
    • LOTS of SAT. FAs = TIGHTLY fit together, LESS movement
  16. Cholesterol role in membranes
    GENERATE Saturated Fatty acids for the membrane
  17. Causes of Leaky membranes (example with mitochondrial membrane)
    • Mit Membranes have more UNSAT fat vs. SAT fat: More leaky
    • with exercise, HEAT generates: More leaky
    • RESULT is DECREASED efficiency and therefore an INCREASE in substrate METABOLISM