Prevention and care Athletic injury

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Author:
dvdromm
ID:
282690
Filename:
Prevention and care Athletic injury
Updated:
2014-09-11 01:00:05
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exersize science
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  1. Three Stages of inflammatory response
    • Inflammatory Response Phase - 4 day
    • Fibroblastic Repair Phase - 6 week
    • Maturation-Remodeling Phase 4 week- 2-3 year
  2. Five Signs of Inflammation
    • Redness
    • Swelling
    • Heat
    • Pain
    • Loss of Function
  3. Chronic Inflammation
    • Occurs when acute inflammatory response does not eliminate injuring agent
    • Tissue not restored to normal physiologic state
    • Involves replacement of leukocytes with macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells
    • As inflammation persists necrosis and fibrosis prolong healing process
  4. Phase II: Fibroblastic repair phase
    • Scar formation through 3 phases
    • Resolution - little tissue damage
    • Restoration - (if resolution is delayed)
    • Regeneration (replacement of tissue with same tissue)
    • Referred to as fibroplasia
  5. Factors that impede Healing
    • Extent of injury
    • Poor Vascular supply
    • infection
    • health, age, nutrition
    • separation of tissue
  6. 5 stages of acute fracture healing
    • hematoma formation
    • cellular proliferation
    • callus formation
    • ossification
    • remodeling
  7. Describe hematoma formation
    • during first 48 hours a hematoma within medullay cavity and surrounding tissue develops
    • blood supply is disrupted by clotting vessels and cellular debris
    • soft callus is a random network of woven bone
    • osteoblasts fill the internal and external calluses to immobilize the site
    • calluses are formed by bone fragments that bridge the fracture gap
    • hard callus becomes more well-formed as osteoblasts lay down cancellous bone
    • with crystallization of callus remodeling begins
  8. 3 things that can interfere with acute fracture management
    • poor blood supply
    • poor immobilization
    • infection
  9. avascular necrosis
    poor blood supply - bone may die and union/healing will not occur
  10. pain control
    • protect
    • localize
    • control pain/ swelling
  11. overtraining
    • •Result of imbalances between physical load
    • being placed on athlete and his/her coping capacity

    • •Physiological and psychological factors
    • underlie overtraining

    •Can lead to staleness and eventually burnout
  12. 4 areas of injury evaluation
    • pre-participation
    • on-the-field assesment
    • off-the-field assesment
    • progress evaluation
  13. clinical v medical diagnosis
    • physicians make medical diagnosis
    • Clinical diagnosis identifies pathology and limitations/disabilities associated with
    • pathology
  14. bio-mechanics assement
    foundation for assessment


    • –Application of mechanical forces
    • which may stem from within or outside the body to living organisms

    • –Pathomechanics -
    • mechanical forces applied to the body due to structural deviation - leading to
    • faulty alignment (resulting in overuse injuries)
  15. Etiology
    cause of injury or disease
  16. Mechanism
    • mechanical description of
    • cause
  17. Pathology
    • structural and functional
    • changes associated with injury process
  18. Symptoms
    • perceptible changes in body
    • or function that indicate injury or illness (subjective)
  19. Sign
    • objective, definitive and
    • obvious indicator for specific condition
  20. Degree
    • grading for
    • injury/condition
  21. Diagnosis
    • denotes name of specific
    • condition
  22. Prognosis-
    • prediction of the course of
    • the condition
  23. Sequela
    • condition following and
    • resulting from disease or injury (pneumonia resulting from flu)
  24. Syndrome
    • group of symptoms and signs
    • that together indicate a particular injury or disease
  25. Differential diagnosis
    • systematic method of
    • diagnosing a disorder
  26. HOPS
    • history
    • observation
    • palpation
    • special tests
  27. SOAP
    • subjective
    • objective
    • assessment
    • plan
  28. Plain Film Radiographs (X-ray)
    • –Used
    • to determine presence of fractures bone abnormalities and dislocations

    • –Can be
    • used to rule out disease (neoplasm)

    • –Occasionally
    • used to assess soft tissue
  29. Arthrography
    • –Visual
    • study of joint via X-ray after injection of dye, air, or a combination of both

    • –Shows
    • disruption of soft tissue and loose bodies
  30. Arthroscopy
    • –Invasive
    • technique, using fiber-optic arthroscope, used to assess joint integrity
    • and damage

    • –Can
    • also be used to perform surgical procedures
  31. Computed Tomography (CT
    scan)
    • –Penetrates body with thin,
    • fan-shape X-ray beam

    • –Produces cross sectional view of
    • tissues

    –Allows multiple viewing angles
  32. Bone Scan
    • –Involves intravenous introduction
    • of radioactive tracer



    • –Used to image bony lesions (i.e.
    • stress fractures) in which there is inflammation
  33. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    (MRI)
    • –Using powerful electromagnet,
    • magnetic current focuses hydrogen atoms in water and aligns them

    • –After current shut off, atoms
    • continue to spin emitting different levels of energy depending on tissue type,
    • creating different images

    • –While expensive, it is clearer
    • than CT scan and the test of choice for detecting soft tissue lesions

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