Applied nutrition flashcards week 2 - signal transduction pathways.txt

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rincrocci
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Applied nutrition flashcards week 2 - signal transduction pathways.txt
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2014-09-11 01:00:17
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applied nutrition
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applied nutrition
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  1. REDOX control enzymes
    • Vit C, E, D
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Minerals for Redox control enzymes and antioxidants: Iron, Selenium, Zinc, Coppper
  2. Regulation of protein synthesis importance via signal transduction pathways - example
    • MYOSIN: if synthesis is NOT regulated, will have Oversized muscles
    • Therefore, need to regulate cell division via regulation of TRANSCRIPTION factors
  3. Why are there so many enzymes in a pathway?
    • Need to have LOTS of steps in order to PREVENT accidental ACTIVATION of effectors
    • DURATION of SIGNAL is important for how much EFFECTOR you end up with
  4. Important cellular proteins for cell fxn
    • 1. Enzymes for chem. rxns
    • 2. Actin and myosin for contractile proteins
    • 3. Collagen and fibrin for connective tissue
    • 4. ANTIBODIES for binding to foreign and non-self shapes
    • 5. DNA-binding molecules to REGULATE TRANSCRIPTION
    • 6. CELLULAR RECEPTORS: embedded in cell membranes that INITIATE signal transduction PATHWAYS, such as INSULIN receptors, epinephrin, testosterone, estrogen receptors, etc.
  5. NF-kB role in pathways
    ACTIVATES Pro-INFLAMMATORY cytokines
  6. 2 metabolic pathway examples
    • 1. GLYCOGEN synthesis: step off glycolysis
    • 2. PENTOSE pathway: Builds NADPH (electrons added to NADP), then breath out carbons as CO2, thereby removing part of glucose as a gas, or it becomes an INERT FAT molecule
    • NADPH then used for synthesis rxns, generating ATP in mitochondria
  7. INFLAMMATORY cells EFFECT on surrounding healthy cells
    • Inflam. cell radical production (and H202) production can infiltrate HEALTHY cells: RADICAL damage to the membrane of these cells
    • Damage causes membrane leakage: causes Calcium influx into cell
    • Ca influx ACTIVATES S-T pathways to produce proteins to REPAIR damage, but can also INCREASE DAMAGE (ie; activating LYSOSOMES which kill the cell, or by activating NF-kB to create INFLAMMATORY response)
  8. Calcium role
    mostly outside of the cell, but it has an important role as a SIGNALING molecule once it gets into the cell, by activating protein kinase c.
  9. When you exercise, chain of events…
    • Up your body temp
    • increase you leakage of membrane
    • decrease ATP synthesis
    • results in need to INCREASE RATE of signaling to combat the decrease ATP
    • increasing H202 will increase signaling rate
    • Having the right amount of Vit C will allow for activation of S-T pathways
  10. Vit E role and structure and involvement with Vit C
    • Fxn is Similar to Vit C: donates electron to RADICAL oxygen, in this case to create stable lipid peroxide
    • Structure of Vit E radical: stable due to benzene ring (e- resonates).
    • Vit C involvement: VIT C REGENERATES Vit E from its radical form, so it is fxnal
  11. Without Vitamin E..
    • Have HIGHER AMOUNT of membranes becoming OXIDIZED
    • CANNOT regenerate lipid Antioxidants
  12. MAJOR antioxidants involved in protecting against damage from Reactive oxidant species (ROS)
    • Vit C and Vit E: help maintain redox state within NORMAL limits, as ROS are produced constantly during metabolic rxns
    • Also rid cell from incoming ROS during other times, such as INFLAMMATION
    • B-carotene and glutathione are LESS EFFECTIVE antioxidants
  13. Antioxidant ENZYMES
    • Also Redox control Enzymes: help maintain redox state within ‘normal’ limits
    • Superoxide dismutase: makes H202
    • Catalase, TRX, PRX, and GPX: Reduces H202 activity by turning it into H20
    • So, in presence of H202, Catalase and other 3 will have INCREASED Activation
    • TRX and PRX also act to regulate p38 and JNK pathways

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