General glossary.txt

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General glossary.txt
2015-02-26 16:47:05

General terms
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  1. Abduction
    Movement away from body.
  2. Adduction
    Movement toward the body.
  3. Alternating grip
    One hand grasping with the palm facing toward the body and the other facing away.
  4. Anterior
    Located in the front.
  5. Biomechanics
    The sport science field that applies the laws of mechanics and physics to human performance.
  6. Cardiovascular exercise
    Any exercise that increases the heart rate making oxygen and nutrient rich blood available to working muscles.
  7. Cardiovascular system
    The circulatory system that distributes blood throughout the body, which includes the heart, lungs, arteries, veins, and capillaries.
  8. Cervical
    Of or relating to the neck. The cervical vertebrae are the seven immediately inferior to the skull.
  9. Coccygeal
    Referring to the coccyx. See Coccyx.
  10. Coccyx
    The small tail-like bone at the bottom of the spine.
  11. Concentric (contraction)
    Occurs when a muscle shortens in length and develops tension. e.g. the upward movement of a weight in a bicep curl.
  12. Crossed syndrome
    Describes a compromise in the musculoskeletal system, which tightens, or facilitates, the anterior of one area of the body while at the same time weakening, or inhibiting, the posterior, usually resulting from a predictable pattern of muscular compensation and postural imbalances in the body. The "upper crossed syndrome" refers to imbalances in the upper torso, and the "lower crossed syndrome" refers to imbalances in the lower torso and legs. These syndromes were first described by Czech physiotherapist Dr. Vladimir Janda.
  13. Crunch
    A common abdominal exercise that calls for curling the shoulders towards the pelvis while lying supine with hands behind head and knees bent.
  14. Curl
    An exercise movement, usually targeting the biceps brachii, that calls for a weight to be moved through an arc, in a "curling" motion.
  15. Eccentric (contraction)
    The development of tension while a muscle is being lengthened. e.g. the downward movement of a weight in a biceps curl.
  16. Ergonomics
    The study of designing equipment and devices that fit the human body, its movements, and its cognitive abilities.
  17. Extention
    The act of straightening.
  18. Extensor muscle
    A muscle serving to extend a body part away from the body.
  19. Facet joint
    The joint between the articular processes of the vertebrae. Also called the zygapophyseal joint.
  20. Facilitated
    Tightened, as in a muscle. See Crossed Syndrome.
  21. Flexion
    The bending of a joint.
  22. Flexor muscle
    A muscle that decreases the angle between two bones. e.g. bending the arm at the elbow or raising the thigh toward the stomach.
  23. Fly
    An exercise movement in which the hand and arm move through an arc while the elbow is kept at a constant angle.
  24. Iliotibial band (ITB)
    A thick band of fibrous tissue that runs down the outside of the leg, beginning at the hip and extending to the outer side of the tibia just below the knee joint. This band functions in coordination with several of the thigh muscles to provide stability to the outside of the knee.
  25. Inhibited
    Weakened, as in a muscle. See Crossed Syndrome.
  26. Intervertebral disk
    The layer of fibrocartilage between the bodies of adjoining vertebrae.
  27. Isometric exercise
    A form of exercise involving the static contraction of a muscle without any visible movement in the angle of the joint.
  28. Kyphosis
    The outward curvature of the spine; when in excess, causes a humped back.
  29. Lateral
    Located on, or extending toward, the outside.
  30. Ligament
    The fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. Links bones across joints.
  31. Lordosis
    The inward curvature of the spine; excessive lordosis causes a swayback.
  32. Lumbar
    Of, near, or situated in the part of the back and sides between the lowest ribs and the pelvis; the lumbar vertebrae are the five vertebrae at the base of the spinal colum.
  33. Medial
    Located on, or extending toward, the middle.
  34. Medicine ball
    A weighted ball, often used for rehabilitation and strength training.
  35. Muscle
    The contractile tissue of the body that functions to produce force and motion. Cardiac and smooth muscle contraction occurs without conscious thought, and voluntary muscles, which we use to move the body, can be finely controlled.
  36. Nerve
    A cordlike structure comprising a collection of fibers that convey impulses between a part of the central nervous system and some other body region.
  37. Nervous system
    The system of cells, tissues, and organs that regulates the body's responses to internal and external stimuli. In humans, it consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor and effector organs. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
  38. Neural foramen
    The aperture formed between every pair of vertebrae, which allows for the passage of the spinal column.
  39. Neutral position
    A spinal position resembling an S shape, consisting of lordosis in the lower back when viewed in profile.
  40. Overhand grip
    A grip in which your palms are facing down and away from you, and your thumbs are pointing inward to each other. See Pronated Grip.
  41. Physiatrist
    A physician specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation.
  42. Posterior
    Located behind.
  43. Process
    A prominence or projection, as from a bone. The spinous process of the vertebrae projects backward from the arches, giving attachment to the back muscles; the transverse processes project either side of the arch of a vertebra.
  44. Pronated grip
    See Overhand Grip.
  45. Sacral
    Referring to the sacrum. See Sacrum.
  46. Sacrum
    The large heavy bone at the base of the spine, which is made up of fused sacral vertebrae. The lumbar vertebrae stack immediately on top of it.
  47. Scapula
    The protrusion of bone on the mid to upper back, also known as the shoulder blade.
  48. Spinal column
    The series of articulated vertebrae, separated by intervertebral disks and held together by muscles and tendons, that extends from the cranium to the coccyx, encasing the spinal cord and forming the supporting axis of the body. Also called the backbone, vertebral column, or spine.
  49. Spinal cord
    The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies within the vertebral canal and from which the spinal nerves emerge. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves originate in the spinal cord: eight cervical, twelve thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal.
  50. Sternum
    The elongated, flattened bone forming the middle portion of the anterior wall of the thorax. Its upper end supports the clavicles, or collarbones, and its margins articulate with the cartilages of the first seven pairs of ribs.
  51. Swiss ball
    A flexible, inflatable PVC ball measuring approximately 14 to 34 inches in circumference that is used for weight training, physical therapy, balance training, and other exercise regimens. It is also called a stability ball, fitness ball, exercise ball, gym ball, physioball, and many other names.
  52. Tendon
    A tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone.
  53. Thoracic
    Of, relating to, or situated in or near the thorax; the thoracic vertebrae are the twelve between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.
  54. Thorax
    The region of the body formed by the sternum, the thoracic vertebrae, and the ribs, extending from the neck to the diaphragm, and not including the upper limbs.
  55. Vertebral body
    The weight-supporting, solid, central part of a vertebra.
  56. Vertebral canal
    The canal formed within the spinal column that contains the spinal cord.
  57. Vestibular deficit
    Difficulties maintaining balance due to inner-ear disorders.
  58. Warm-up
    Any form of light exercise of short duration that prepares the body for more intense exercises.
  59. Zygapophyseal joint
    See Facet Joint.
  60. Core
    Refers to the deep muscle layers that lie close to the spine and provide structural support for the entire body. The core is divisible into two groups: major core and minor core muscles. See Major Core and Minor Core.
  61. Major core
    The major core muscles reside on the trunk and include the belly area and the mid and lower back. This area encompasses the pelvic floor muscles (levator ani, pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, puborectalis, and coccygeus), the abdominals (rectus abdominis, transversus adominis, obliquus externus, and obliquus internus), the spinal extensors (multifidus spinae, erector spinae, splenius, longissimus thoracis, and semispinalis), and the diaphragm.
  62. Minor core
    These muscles include the latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus, and trapezius (upper, middle, and lower). These minor core muscles assist the major muscles when the body engages in activities or movements that require added stability.
  63. Deadlift
    An exercise movement that calls for lifting a weight, such as a barbell, off the ground from a stabilized bent-over position.
  64. Dumbbell
    A basic piece of equipment that consists of a short bar on which plates are secured. A person can use a dumbbell in one or both hands during an exercise. Most gyms offer dumbbells with the weight plates welded on and poundage indicated on the plates, but many dumbbells intended for home use come with removable plates that allow you to adjust the weight.
  65. Free weights
    Any weight not part of a machine. e.g. dumbbells; barbells; medicine balls; sandbells; kettlebells
  66. Hand weight
    Any of a range of free weights that are often used in weight training and toning. Small hand weights are usually cast iron formed in the shape of a dumbbell, sometimes coated with rubber or neoprene for comfort.
  67. Incline
    Position in which the body is tilted back in respect to the vertical plane. Often used to work the upper-chest muscles.
  68. Press
    An exercise movement that calls for moving a weight or other resistance away from the body.
  69. Range of motion
    The distance and direction a joint can move between the flexed position and the extended position.
  70. Reclining press
    An exercise movement that calls for a person to lie supine on a bench or Swiss ball, lower a weight to chest level, and then push it back up until the arm is straight and the elbow locked. Strengthen the pectorals, deltoids, and triceps.
  71. Resistance band
    Any rubber tubing or flat band device that provides a resistive force used for strength training. Also called a fitness band, stretching band, and stretch tube.
  72. Rotator muscle
    One of a group of muscles that assist the rotation of a joint. e.g. hip or the shoulder.
  73. Split squat
    An assisted one-legged squat where the nonlifting leg is rested on the floor a few steps behind the lifting leg, as if it were a static lunge.
  74. Squat
    An exercise movement that calls for moving the hips back and bending the knees and hips to lower the torso and an accompanying weight, and then returning to the upright position. A squat primarily targets the muscles of the thighs, hips and buttocks, and hamstrings.
  75. Weight
    Refers to the plates or weight stacks, or the actual poundage listed on the bar or dumbbell.