Geography physical drainage basin

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Author:
shotguniall
ID:
282702
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Geography physical drainage basin
Updated:
2014-09-20 10:00:15
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geography physical rivers drainage basin
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autumn term
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  1. What is the mouth of the river?
    Where the river flows into the sea or sometimes into a lake
  2. What is the watershed?
    The boundary dividing one drainage basin from another - a ridge of higher land
  3. what is a confluence?
    The point at which two rivers join
  4. what is the source of he river
    The upland area where the river begins
  5. what is the catchment?
    The area from which water drains into a particular drainage basin
  6. what is a tributary
    A river which joins a larger river
  7. what is a drainage basin?
    The area which is drained by a river and its tributaries
  8. what is drainage density?
    The total length of all the streams in the basin divided by the total area of the basin
  9. what is transpiration
    Water vapour released through the stomata in leaves
  10. what is through-flow
    The flow of water beneath the ground’s surface
  11. what is condensation?
    When water vapour turns into liquid water as it cools
  12. what is evapouration?
    Water droplets are turned into water vapour
  13. What is surface runoff?
    The flow of water over the surface of the ground
  14. what is precipitation?
    Water that falls through the air e.g. snow, rain, hail
  15. what is drip fall?
    Droplets that fall from the leaves of trees to the ground
  16. what is infiltration?
    Water passing from ground level through to the soil
  17. what is an interception?
    Objects that prevent water from reaching the ground
  18. what is percolation?
    Water seeping through the soil layer to the rock layer
  19. what is the water table?
    The level below which the ground is saturated with water.
  20. what is groundwater flow?
    Water that travels underneath and parallel to the surface
  21. what is soil moisture storage?
    water held in the soil layer
  22. What is insolation?
    Sunlight
  23. what is the river channel storage?
    Water held within the banks of the river
  24. what is stem flow?
    Water which runs down the stems and branches in the ground layer. Takes place after interception has occurred
  25. what is base flow?
    Product of groundwater seeping slowly into the bed of the river
  26. what is surface storage?
    • Water held on top of the ground, for example puddles 
    • this may be due to the fact that the ground surface is impermeable
  27. what is an aquifer?
    Permeable rock which contains groundwater
  28. what are storm hydrographs?
    Graphs on which river discharge during a storm, or single precipitation event, is plotted against time
  29. what is river discharge?
    volume of water passing through a cross-section of a river during a given time period. Measured in cumecs
  30. What is the 'lag time' on a storm hydograph?
    Period of time between the end of rainfall and the peak discharge
  31. How does precipitation reach ground before it is transported?
    • 1. Direct channel input (water falls straight into channel)
    • 2. Interception followed by stemflow or drip-fall
    • 3. Infiltration 
    • 4. Percolation
  32. How is water transported to the river channel?
    • 1. Overland flow
    • 2. Throughflow
    • 3. Base flow
  33. List throughflow, baseflow and overland flow in order of speed from fastest to slowest
    • Overland flow
    • Through flow
    • Base flow
  34. What is antecedent discharge?
    Level of discharge before the storm which is lower in the summer and higher in the winter
  35. Which process is the most common way for discharge to reach the channel?
    Overland flow
  36. Which process is the least common way for discharge to reach the channel?
    Base flow, which responds slowly to precipitation inputs
  37. What is the case study for how different factors effect river discharge?
    The River Ribble, Lancashire UK
  38. Describe and explain a case study for how different factors effect river discharge
    • The River Ribble in Lancashire, UK 
    • 110km long 
    • joins the irish sea at Preston
    • During intense storms there is a short lag time and a high peak in discharge
    • the rock type is impermeable Millstone Grit and limestone resulting in lots of overland flow
    • the soil type is peat soil, which is a major store of groundwater
    • the basin shape is elongated and the largest in NW england. 
    • maximum rainfall is 1775mm 
    • heavily urbanised surrounding forces more water into the Ribble through surface run-off
    • agriculture along the Ribble has lead to degration of vegetation cover (animals eat the grass) and means higher amounts of water enter river
  39. What factors effect the shape of a hydrograph? List 10
    • urbanisation
    • rainfall
    • Insolation levels
    • geology of rock
    • vegetation cover
    • temperature 
    • thickness of soil
    • size of river
    • level of the water table
    • height of existing water
    • gradient
    • size of drainage basin
  40. How does the size of the drainage basin effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is shorter and peak is higher in a small basin compared to a big basin
  41. How does the shape of the drainage basin effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is shorter and peak is higher in a more circular basin compared to an elongated one
  42. How does the relief of the land effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is shorter and peak is higher in a steeper basin
  43. How does the length of precipitation event effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is shorter and peak is higher after prolonged precipitation
  44. How does the intensity of precipitation effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is shorter and peak is higher after intense rainfall
  45. How does the type of precipitation effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is slower and peak is slower after snowfall because snow is stored on the ground surface
  46. How does the permeability of the rock effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is shorter and peak is higher in an area of impermeable rock type because they are saturated more quickly than porous rock
  47. How does the level of vegetation effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is slower and peak is lower in a forested basin because vegetation intercepts a large proportion of precipitation
  48. How does the soil texture and structure effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is slower and peak is lower in areas od sandy soil because they have larger pores than clay soil
  49. How does urbanisation effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is faster and peak is higher in a urbanised catchment because surface run-off is higher
  50. How does deforestation effect the shape of the hydrograph?
    Lag time is faster and peak is higher because there is nothing to intercept precipitation or allow for evapotranspiration
  51. What is the river regime?
    the changing pattern of river discharge over a period of time, usually a year
  52. How can summer effect the river regime?
    • higher levels of interception and evapotranspiration 
    • increased rate of human abstraction, due to increased demand
  53. How does winter effect the river regime?
    • Less interception and evapotranspiration 
    • Snow and ice will increase river discharge
  54. Define: permeable
    A substance that allows water to pass through it
  55. Define: impermeable
    A substance that doesn't allow water to pass through it
  56. Define: porous
    a material which has tiny pores that allow water to pass through it e.g. clay
  57. Define: non-porous
    a material which doesn't allow liquid or air to pass through it e.g. granite
  58. Define: pervious
    a substance that has cracks, joints or bedding planes that allow water through e.g. limestone
  59. Why does precipitation usually exceed evapotranspiration rates, resulting in a positive water budget/balance?
    The climate is temperate
  60. What is a soil moisture surplus?
    When precipitation levels are higher than evapotranspiration levels. Happens in winter

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