Chapter 16 Ap2

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Chapter 16 Ap2
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  1. Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics at puberty.
    Ovaries
  2. Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain
    Pituitary gland
  3. Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics
    Testes
  4. Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
    Adrenal glands
  5. Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ.
    Hypothalmus
  6. Growth hormone‐releasing hormone (GHRH)
    goes for bones and muscle growth
  7. Gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH
    goes to the testes and ovaries
  8. Prolactin‐releasing hormone (PRH)
    Mammary glands and milk procuction.
  9. Corticotropin‐releasing hormone (CRH)
    Adrenal cortex
  10. Thyrotropin‐releasing hormone (TRH)
    thyroid
  11. An autoimmune problem involving the thyroid gland.
    Graves disease
  12. Hyposecretion of growth hormone
    Pituitart dwarfisim
  13. Hyposecretion of the pancreas
    Diabetes mellitus
  14. Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex.
    Addison's disease
  15. Hypersecretion of growth hormone
    Acromegaly
  16. Hyposecretion of the thyroid in adults.
    Myxedema
  17. Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex
    cushings disease
  18. Hypersecretion of growth hormone
    acromeagly
  19. Hyposecretion of the thyroid in infants.
    Cretinism
  20. The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands
    hypohysis
  21. The gland that controls the fight‐or‐flight reaction
    Adrenal medualla
  22. Produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body
    pancreas
  23. Produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue
    Parathyroid
  24. Produces the body's major metabolic hormones
    thyroid
  25. What zone Produces glucocorticoids
    zona fasiculata
  26. What zone Produces epinephrine
    adrenal medulla
  27. What zone Produces aldosterone
    zona glomerluosa
  28. What zone Excess hormone levels result in Cushing’s syndrome.
    zona glomerluosa
  29. What zone Hormones mimic sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitters
    adrenal medulla
  30. What zone Produces androgens
    zona reticularis
  31. In humans, melatonin may inhibit sexual maturation.T or F
    true
  32. The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin‐parathormone.T or F
    true
  33. The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin T or F
    false
  34. Addison’s disease is due to a deficit output of glucocorticoids only T or F
    false
  35. Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system T or F
    true
  36. ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.T or F
    true
  37. LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin T or F
    true
  38. With age, chronic stress increases blood levels of cortisol and appears to contribute to memory deteriorationT or F
    true
  39. Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.T or F
    True
  40. Follicle cells of the thyroid gland produce thyroglobulin, while follicle cells of the parathyroid produce calcitonin.T or F
    false
  41. Type 2 diabetics may reflect declining receptor sensitivity to insulin rather than decreased insulin production.T or F
    true
  42. The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis.T or F
    true
  43. The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulinT or F
    true
  44. Most type 2 diabetics do not produce insulin.T or F
    false
  45. Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid produced in the adrenals but the least abundant.T or F
    false
  46. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodiumT or F
    true
  47. Although glucagon is a small polypeptide, it is nevertheless very potent in its regulatory effects.T or F
    true
  48. The thyroid gland is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an individualT or F
    true
  49. Many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmittersT or F
    true
  50. All of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis: ACTH, FSH, and LH
    T or F
    true
  51. Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxineT or F
    true
  52. The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.T or F
    false
  53. Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.T or F
    false
  54. Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune responses when an individual is suffering from severe stressT or F
    false
  55. Direct gene activation involves a second‐messenger system.T or F
    false
  56. All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA.T or F
    true
  57. All adenohypophyseal hormones except GH affect their target cells via a cyclic AMP second messenger.  T or F
    true
  58. Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.
    A)  cortisol 
    B)  secretin 
    C)  aldosterone
    D)  insulin
    A)  cortisol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the ________.
    A)  adrenal medulla 
    B)  thymus gland
    C)  thyroid gland 
    D)  pancreas
    B)  thymus gland
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Virtually all of the protein or amino acid‐based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.
    A)  ions
    B)  deactivators 
    C)  nucleotides 
    D)  second messengers
    D)  second messengers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
    A)  neural 
    B)  enzyme
    C)  hormonal 
    D)  humoral
    B)  enzyme
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________. 
    A)  proteins 
    B)  hormones 
    C)  enzymes
    D)  antibodies
    B)  hormones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. The hypothalamic‐hypophyseal tract 

    A)  is the site of prolactin synthesis
    B)  conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis C)  connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland
    D)  is partly contained within the infundibulum
    D)  is partly contained within the infundibulum
  64. 64)  Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus? 
    A)  polyphagia
    B)  All of these are signs.
    C)  polydipsia 
    D)  polyuria 
    B)  All of these are signs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?
    A)  number of receptors for that hormone 
    B)  type of hormone
    C)  blood levels of hormone
    D)  strength of the bond between the receptor and hormone
    B)  type of hormone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. Oxytocin ________.
    A)  exerts its most important effects during menstruation
    B)  controls milk production
    C)  is an adenohypophyseal secretion
    D)  release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
    D)  release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. ADH ________.
    A)  promotes dehydration
    B)  is produced in the adenohypophysis
    C)  increases urine production
    D)  is inhibited by alcohol
    D)  is inhibited by alcohol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by ________
    A)  exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism
    B)  causing a reduction in the number of blood vessel adrenergic receptors, and therefore decreasing blood pressure
    C)  entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
    D)  acting to decrease basal metabolic rate
    C)  entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Gonadocorticoid(s)
    A)  production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
    B)  hypersecretion can result in adrenogenital syndrome, also called feminization
    C)  secretion inhibition is highly dependent on a negative feedback loop involving ACTH
    D)  synthesized by the adrenal medulla are primarily androgen
    A)  production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as
    A)  metabolism of protein kinases
    B)  cellular inhibition
    C)  down‐regulation
    D)  diabetes mellitus
    C)  down‐regulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?
    A)  the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis
    B)  a change in membrane potential
    C)  direct control of the nervous system
    D)  an increase in enzymatic activity
    C)  direct control of the nervous system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on
    A)  the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
    B)  the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
    C)  the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
    D)  nothingall hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
    A)  the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the
    A)  feedback loop
    B)  hypophyseal portal system
    C)  hepatic portal system 
    D)  general circulatory system 
    B)  hypophyseal portal system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because
    A)  it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location
    B)  it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
    C)  it is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with hormonal release
    D)  embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer functional
    B)  it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. Steroid hormones exert their action by
    A)  stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen B)  entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene C)  finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity
    D)  increasing blood pressure
    B)  entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
  76. The second‐messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by
    A)  not responding to a feedback mechanism B)  binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
    C)  synthesizing more of the hormone than is actually needed
    D)  increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ
    B)  binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
  77. Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because
    A)  there are thousands of receptors on the cell membrane
    B)  during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
    C)  the protein kinase are rapidly metabolized
    D)  the receptors bind to several hormones at the same time
    B)  during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because
    A)  the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit
    B)  peptide hormones always enter the cell membrane and elicit a response without assistance from other messengers
    C)  hormones alter cellular operations through stimulation of a gene directly
    D)  G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
    D)  G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to

    A)  steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
    B)  glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone C)  insulin, because insulin is a small peptide D)  growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone
    A)  steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
  80. When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight‐or‐flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is
    A)  epinephrine
    B)  estrogen
    C)  angiotensinogen 
    D)  renin 
    A)  epinephrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
    A)  humoral stimulation
    B)  the rapid oxidation of carbohydrates
    C)  catabolic inhibition
    D)  protein synthesis
    A)  humoral stimulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. 82)  The major targets of growth hormone are A)  the adrenal glands 
    B)  the blood vessels
    C)  bones and skeletal muscles 
    D)  the liver
    C)  bones and skeletal muscles
  83. The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through
    A)  targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released D)  antagonizing the synthesis of calcitonin
    B)  blocking the action of growth hormone
    C)  slowing the activity of tissues that require calcium for activity
    A)  targeting the bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. 84)  Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP
    A)  the skin
    B)  the heart 
    C)  the spleen
    D)the kidney 
    B)  the heart
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to
    A)  testosterone 
    B)  estrogen 
    C)  cortisol
    D)  epinephrine
    C)  cortisol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. Leptin is secreted by
    A)  adipocyte
    B)  lymphocytes
    C)  fibroblasts 
    D)  goblet cells 
    A)  adipocyte
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is
    A)  aldosterone 
    B)  glucagon
    C)  insulin 
    D)  cortisol
    A)  aldosterone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. Which of the following is not a steroid‐based hormone?
    A)  estrogen
    B)  aldosterone
    C)  cortisone 
    D)  epinephrine 
    D)  epinephrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells? 
    A)  an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP
    B)  second‐messenger systems
    C)  extracellular receptors with a specificity for only a single amino acid sequence on the hormone
    D)  a hormone‐receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell's DNA
    D)  a hormone‐receptor complex that interacts directly with the cell's DNA
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. Cellular responses to hormones that initiate second‐messenger systems include
    A)  possible activation of several different second‐messenger systems
    B)  hormone binding to intracellular receptors C)  cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase formation of an active second messenger
    D)  formation of a specific protein kinase that acts on a series of extracellular intermediates
    A)  possible activation of several different second‐messenger systems
  91. Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus

    A)  enter the hepatic portal system, which feeds the pituitary
    B)  enter venous circulation and travel to the heart, which pumps the hormone‐containing blood to the pituitary
    C)  travel by arteries to the pituitary
    D)  first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
    D)  first enter into the hypophyseal portal system
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. ACTH

    A)  causes the release of hormones from the adrenal medulla
    B)  is secreted by the posterior pituitary
    C)  is not a tropic hormone
    D)  secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
    D)  secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic secretion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis?
    A)  Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
    B)  Increased calcitonin levels will cause increased blood calcium levels.
    C)  High calcium levels cause bone resorption
    D)  Parathyroid hormone causes an increase in osteoblast activity.
    A)  Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. Aldosterone

    A)  functions to increase sodium reabsorption B)  is secreted by the neurohypophysis
    C)  presence increases potassium concentration in the blood
    D)  production is greatly influenced by ACTH
    A)  functions to increase sodium reabsorption
  95. The only amine hormone to act like a steroid is
    A)  TH 
    B)  ACTH 
    C)  ADH
    D)  GH 
    A)  TH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. 96)  Which organ does not have hormone production?
    A)  skin 
    B)  liver 
    C)  heart 
    D)  kidney
    B)  liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as

    A)  the cell's sensitivity reaction
    B)  cellular affinity 
    C)  a reaction to a stressor
    D)  up‐regulation 
    D)  up‐regulation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. Eicosanoids do not include
    A)  prostaglandins
    B)  paracrines 
    C)  leukotrienes 
    D)  hydrocortisones
    D)  hydrocortisones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem. 

    A)  The physician is wronga hormone made in the adenohypophysis could not influence fertility.
    B)  FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
    C)  FSH stimulates estrogen secretion by ovarian cells; therefore it is not synthesized by males
    D)  The man must be producing progesterone, which inhibits the synthesis of FSH.
    B)  FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone in adults?
    A)  thyroid gland 
    B)  liver
    C)  brain
    D)  spleen
    B)  liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?

    A)  It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
    B)  It is a stimulant of cellular metabolism and targets all cells.
    C)  It causes positive feedback
    D)  It is very specific in the cell type it targets.
    A)  It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. How do glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress?

    A)  by decreasing the heart rate, thus decreasing blood pressure
    B)  by blocking the neurotransmitters that prepare the body for the stress response
    C)  by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin
    D)  by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
    D)  by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid, and amino acid levels and enhancing blood pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid based hormones?
    A)  sodium
    B)  chlorine 
    C)  iron 
    D)  calcium 
    D)  calcium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. ________ are hormones synthesized from cholesterol.
    Steroids
  105. ________ is a hormone that has only one known effect: to stimulate milk production by the breast
    Prolactin
  106. ________ are the result of HYPERsecretion of growth hormone.
    Agromegly and gigantisim
  107. The largest pure endocrine gland in the body is the ________.
    Thyroid
  108. Which hormone stimulates production of RBCs and which organ or structure produces it
    Erythropoieten and the Kidney
  109. Alpha islet cells produce ________, an extremely potent hyperglycemic hormone
    Glucagon
  110. The ________ gland may influence our day/night cycles and even regulate the onset of sexual maturity
    Pineal
  111. The ________ gland declines in size and function with age.
    Thymus
  112. Endocrine gland stimuli include hormonal, ________, and ________ stimuli
    humoral and neural
  113. As a result of stress the adenohypophysis releases ________, which stimulates release of hormones from the adrenal cortex that retain sodium and water, increase blood sugar, and begin breaking down fats
    ACTH

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