Psych Midterm

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Psych Midterm
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2014-09-11 18:07:34
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psychology midterm review
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  1. The first psychological laboratory was set up by
    Wilhelm Wundt in 1879
  2. If competent researchers consistently get similar results whenever they follow a particular procedure, then the results are
    Replicable
  3. An investigator analyzes the results of an experiment and determines that p <.05. Why does the investigator want to know the value of p?
    to determine whether the results are statistically significant
  4. Brain researchers would probably be most comfortable with which of the following statements?
    Brain activity and mental activity are the same thing
  5. In one study, what had the biggest effect on whether Japanese exchange students felt homesick?
    foods
  6. Juanita takes a drug one night to eliminate her headache. The next morning her headache is gone. What conclusion, if any, can we draw, and why?
    We draw no conclusion because the study lacks a control group
  7. What kind of group has the same percentage of young and old, male and female, and educated and uneducated people as the population as a whole?
    Representative sample
  8. Which of the following correctly states how a particular type of psychologist would study behavioral differences between boys and girls?
    A social psychologist would study how adults expectations affect boys and girls
  9. Can psychoanalysts prescribe drugs?
    Only those who are psychiatrists can
  10. Modern-day research on animal intelligence focuses most strongly on which of these questions?
    What does animal learning tell us about the mechanisms of intelligent behavior?
  11. In what situation is the median better than the mean for representing most scores?
    When there are some extreme scores
  12. Investigators are most likely to use the case history method when they study
    a rare behavior or an unusual person
  13. It is found that children with many friends are generally happier than children with fewer friends. What kind of research design was probably used in this study?
    Correlation
  14. Teachers seeking help in coping with students with special needs would consult which of these?
    School psychologist
  15. In the field of psychology, what happened just after WWII?
    Clinical psychology grew in prominence
  16. A testable prediction of what will happen under a specific set of conditions is known as a/an
    hypothesis
  17. In 1905, who developed the first useful intelligence test?
    Alfred Binet
  18. If we want to describe the "average" person, the mean and median give similar results UNLESS
    a few individuals in the sample of extreme, unlike the others
  19. The field of ergonomics is also known as
    human factors
  20. Do people learn the facial expression to use for various emotions, or are the expressions part of human nature: Which of these would investigate that question?
    cross-cultural psychologists
  21. Dr. Rodentz deprives rats of food for different lengths of time and then records how long each rat takes to reach food at the end of a maze. The length of food deprivation is the
    independent variable
  22. A researcher measures people's blood type and tests whether those with different blood types have different personalities. What kind of research is this?
    correlation
  23. Early psychologists, eager to develop a scientific psychology, concentrated on
    sensation
  24. What do we call the process of looking within yourself to describe sensations and experiences?
    introspection
  25. "In a universe composed of matter and energy, why is there such a thing as consciousness?" This question related most closely to the philosophical issue of
    mind and brain
  26. In one word, why did most scientists resist the belief that Clever Hans could do complex mathematics, even before they had a good explanation of what he was actually doing?
    parsimony
  27. An investigator decides to consider the results of an experiment to be statically significant if p <.05. An analysis of the result indicated that p=.09. What conclusion, if any, can the investigator draw?
    The results do not justify any conclusion
  28. In which way would a cognitive psychologist be most likely to try to help a slow-learning child?
    teach better problem solving strategies
  29. Jane Goodall spent years observing chimpanzees in the wild. her technique was
    naturalistic observation
  30. A psychologist who attempts to test the assumptions of determinism is most likely to investigate.
    whether it is possible to predict behaviors
  31. If the standard deviation is small, then
    most scores are close to the mean
  32. A psychotherapist with a medical degree is a __ and on with a Ph.D is a __.
    psychiatrist .. psychologist
  33. One problem with using anecdotes as evidence for ESP (or for anything else) is that anecdotes are
    not replicable
  34. If everyone has the same chance of being in the experimental group, then the experiment has
    random assignment
  35. The correlation between A and B is +60; the correlation between C and D is -.75. What do we know about causation based on this information?
    We don't know anything about causation from the information above
  36. Health psychologists would be MOST interested in which of these?
    how stressful experiences lead to illness
  37. An evolutionary psychologist is most likely to consider which of these questions?
    Why are men More likely than women to seek multiple sexual partners?
  38. Damage to the adrenal gland can lead to an increased need for which dietary substance?
    salt
  39. We should be more impressed with a result if the p value is __ and the 95% confidence interval is __
    Small .. small
  40. What is the advantage of the experimental method as opposed to correlational studies?
    An experiment can demonstrate cause and effect relationships.
  41. A survey asks, "Do you support the current laws on abortion?" Ninety- four percent of the respondents answer "no". What, if anything, can we conclude?
    We can draw none of these conclusions.
  42. People who expect someone to succeed treat that person differently and thereby cause the success they expected. Which type of psychologist studies processes like this?
    social psychologist
  43. Toddlers eat anything that tastes good, but older children refuses many foods. Which type of psychologist is most likely to study this change over age?
    developmental psychologists
  44. From around 1920 to 1970 research in psychology focused primarily on the study of
    observable behavior
  45. What is a placebo?
    a pill with no important biological effects
  46. What did Francis Galton cite as evident for the importance of heredity in intelligence?
    Often the sons of eminent men become eminent themselves
  47. Research to answer a theoretical question is called __ research, whereas research to solve a practical problem is called __ research.
    basic .. applied
  48. Under what circumstances is psychological research with animals legally permissible?
    only after a committee at the college or research institute approves the proposal
  49. If you become
    skillful at basketball because your friends encourage you to play and you have
    practiced a lot, your behavior is influenced primarily by ___. If you
    are good at basketball mainly because you are very tall, as have been all of
    the members of your family for generations, your behavior is influenced
    primarily by ____.
    nurture...nature
  50. A correlation
    coefficient is a mathematical value that ranges between
    -1 and +1
  51. The brain area controlling heart rate and breathing has many receptors for ____ and few receptors for ____.
    opiates... marijuana
  52. At the point where the optic nerve exits from the retina, we perceive
    nothing (blindness).
  53. The cause of phantom sensations (such as with phantom limbs) lies in the
    cortex of the brain.
  54. In what way do hurt feelings resemble physical pain, if at all?
    Hurt feelings activate emotional areas of the brain the same way pain does.
  55. As you watch a car drive toward you, you do not perceive it as growing larger, even though its image on your retina grows larger. The name for this phenomenon is
    size constancy.
  56. How can psychologists determine what the world looks like to a red-green color-blind person?
    Ask someone who is red-green color blind in one eye to describe what he or she sees.
  57. Conduction deafness is caused by damage to the
    bones connected to the eardrum.
  58. Damage or immaturity of which brain area is linked to impulsive decisions?
    prefrontal cortex
  59. Clyde Tombaugh was able to discover the dwarf planet Pluto in 1930 by using his
    movement perception.
  60. In several studies, people heard subliminal audiotapes that contained messages different from what they were told to expect. For example, the tapes might be about self-esteem, when people thought the tapes suggested better memory. What is the usual outcome of such studies?
    People report improvement in what they expected the tapes to improve, but not in what the tapes were actually saying.
  61. A person is completely deaf in the left ear but has normal hearing in the right ear. Which aspect of hearing is most likely to be impaired in this person?
    ability to localize the source of a sound
  62. After you stare at a pattern of narrow lines long enough to fatigue certain feature detectors, you now stare at slightly wider lines. How will your perception of those lines differ from your usual perception of them?
    They will appear to be even wider than they are.
  63. By what means do we perceive the pitch of a low-frequency sound, such as 30 Hz?
    Each hair cell sends one impulse for each sound wave.
  64. A split-brain patient (with damage to the corpus callosum) feels something with the left hand. In which way, if any, can this person tell us what he/she felt?
    Can point to the correct object, but only with the left hand.
  65. If a stimulus is slightly weaker than the absolute sensory threshold, how often would we expect a person to be able to identify its presence?
    a little less than half the time
  66. An action potential takes place by the movement of __________ ions across the membrane.
    sodium
  67. A feature detector is a kind of
    neuron.
  68. A magician has two people concealed in a long wooden box, one whose head and arms stick out of the box, and the other whose legs stick out. When the magician saws between the two people the audience thinks the magician is sawing one person in half. This trick is based primarily on the Gestalt principle of
    closure.
  69. In older people, the lens of each eye becomes less flexible. How does that change their vision?
    They have more trouble focusing on nearby objects.
  70. According to gate theory, how does distraction relieve pain?
    It blocks pain messages from reaching the brain?
  71. How does cocaine affect the nervous system?
    It prevents neurons from reabsorbing dopamine and serotonin after releasing them.
  72. In addition to sweet, sour, salty, and bitter, what other taste do our receptors detect?
    MSG (monosodium glutamate)
  73. A one-eyed person can detect depth in many ways, but is unable to use these two ways:
    retinal disparity and convergence
  74. If we want to predict people’s attitudes toward use of police and military power, which of the following would be best to measure?
    people’s responses to sudden loud noises
  75. According to Hubel and Wiesel’s research on the visual cortex of cats and monkeys, each feature detector neuron responds to the sight of a particular
    shape.
  76. Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), the so-called "date rape" drug, is what type of drug?
    anxiolytic drug (tranquilizer)
  77. Endorphins stimulate the same receptors as which of these drugs?
    morphine
  78. After damage to the cerebral cortex, a person has an impairment in body perception (touch, etc.) and impaired perception of object locations. Where is the damage probably located?
    parietal lobe
  79. For what medical purpose have surgeons sometimes cut the corpus callosum?
    to control epilepsy
  80. If someone has “blindsight,” what can this person do?
    indicate the direction to something, without seeing it consciously
  81. Anxiolytic drugs, also called tranquilizers, exert many of their behavioral effects by doing what?
    facilitating transmission at inhibitory synapses
  82. PKU (phenylketonuria) is an inherited condition that leads to mental retardation. However, a family can prevent the mental retardation by controlling which of these?
    the child’s diet
  83. A visual sensation is brief, whereas a taste lasts longer and hunger lasts still longer. How does the nervous system produce effects with such variation in time course?
    Some neurotransmitters produce longer effects than others.
  84. How does L-DOPA affect someone with Parkinson’s disease?
    It temporarily relieves the symptoms.
  85. Psychologists define the absolute sensory threshold as the intensity of a stimulus that someone can detect ____ of the time.
    50%
  86. How does functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measure brain activity?
    by detecting how much oxygen various brain areas have removed from the blood
  87. A neuron is receiving excitatory and inhibitory synaptic messages and producing a few action potentials. What happens if someone injects a drug that blocks the inhibitory synapses?
    The neuron will produce more action potentials than before.
  88. According to the trichromatic theory (Young-Helmholtz theory), how do we perceive color?
    by the ratio of firing among three types of cones
  89. Brain researchers would probably be most comfortable with which of the following statements?
    Brain activity and mental activity are the same thing.
  90. If a drug prevents the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA from attaching to its receptors, what happens to the postsynaptic cell?
    It produces more action potentials than usual.
  91. Biological psychologists explain Parkinson's disease in terms of what?
    deficiency of a particular neurotransmitter.
  92. Capsaicin, the chemical that makes jalapeño peppers taste hot, is sometimes used for what?
    to relieve aching muscles
  93. A gene that influences lactose metabolism varies among human populations. What behavior does the gene influence?
    depressed mood
  94. If someone insists that Tuesday is blue, what condition does the person evidently have?
    synesthesia
  95. An application of capsaicin to the skin or muscles causes first a burning sensation and then a prolonged decrease in pain sensations. Why?
    Capsaicin releases pain transmitters faster than the brain can resynthesizes them.
  96. During danger, the ___ system is more active. When danger passes, the ___ system is more active.
    sympathetic... parasympathetic
  97. A brain scan records the activity of various brain areas during a memory task. Before we can draw conclusions about those brain areas, what other information do we need?
    recordings of brain activity during a comparison task
  98. For the great majority of people, the ability to speak depends mainly on the __________ hemisphere, which controls muscles on the __________ side of the body.
    left...right
  99. An X-linked recessive gene has greater effects on whom?
    men more than women
  100. Compared to the periphery of the eye, the fovea has better perception of
    color and detail.
  101. Drug tolerance has been interpreted as an example of classical conditioning. In this interpretation, the conditioned stimulus is ___ and the conditioned response is ___.
    the injection procedure... the body’s defenses against the drug
  102. A tone is followed by a puff of air to the eyes. After several repetitions, subjects blink their eyes when they hear the tone. In this experiment blinking is
    both the conditioned response and the unconditioned response.
  103. "Authoritative" parents who set high standards and communicate sympathetically tend to have well-behaved children. What conclusion, if any, can we draw from these data?
    We can draw no cause-and-effect conclusion from these correlational data.
  104. An experimenter places a colored spot on a child’s nose, lets the child look in the mirror, and observes whether the child touches his/her own nose. What concept is being tested?
    sense of self
  105. If children less than one year old get earlier than normal experience of locomotion, such as by crawling, what do they develop earlier than average?
    fear of heights
  106. Contrary to Piaget, later research found that infants do show object permanence, if they are tested in a different way. What did the later research measure?
    How long infants stare at an “impossible” outcome.
  107. A psychologist might evaluate a child's ability to answer abstract and hypothetical questions to determine whether the child is in the ______ or the ______ stage of cognitive development.
    concrete-operations...formal-operations
  108. After several repetitions of a sound, it produces less arousal. A slightly changed sound may produce more arousal. What do we call the original decrease and the later increase?
    habituation...dishabituation
  109. A dog has been trained to salivate whenever it sees a large white square. Now it salivates somewhat at the sight of a large gray square. The dog is displaying
    stimulus generalization.
  110. A nursing mother puts her baby to her breast whenever she hears it cry. After a few days, her milk starts to flow as soon as she hears the baby. In terms of classical conditioning, what is the conditioned stimulus?
    the baby's cry
  111. An investigator measures the moral reasoning of a group of 12-year-olds, and four years later measures their moral reasoning again. This study follows which design?
    longitudinal
  112. An investigator presents a conditioned stimulus followed by an unconditioned stimulus until an animal is classically conditioned. Then she exposes the animal to an extinction procedure. If she waits a while and then tests the animal again, what happens?
    spontaneous recovery
  113. "Tragedy will never strike me...." "I will succeed in all my ambitions...." "Everyone notices how I look." According to David Elkind, these beliefs are part of the adolescent's
    personal fable.
  114. In an experiment on classical conditioning, the training may go through three steps. If so, the only possible order of those steps is:
    acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery
  115. After a subject has developed a classically conditioned response, an investigator begins presenting the conditioned stimulus by itself. Which of the following is likely to occur?
    extinction
  116. Hilary's parents have paid her every time she cleans up her room. Sue's parents have sometimes paid her for cleaning her room, but usually not. Now both sets of parents stop paying. Which girl will probably continue cleaning her room the longest, and why?
    Sue, because extinction is slower after intermittent reinforcement than after continuous reinforcement
  117. Children who are frequently spanked tend to be ill-behaved. What conclusion (if any) can we draw from this result?
    We can draw none of these conclusions.
  118. If you want to determine whether some example of learning qualifies as classical conditioning or operant conditioning, which question should you ask?
    Did the individual’s responses control the outcomes?
  119. A researcher studies children of several ages, and then studies the same children five and ten years later. What research design is this?
    sequential
  120. In an experiment by Bandura, Ross, and Ross, one group of children watched a film in which someone violently attacked an inflated doll. Another group watched a film in which no one attacked the doll. At the end of the film, both groups were put in a room with an inflated doll. Who (if anyone) attacked the doll?
    the group that watched others attack the doll
  121. In Piaget's terminology, what is it that sometimes gets assimilated and sometimes gets accommodated?
    a schema
  122. If a child lacks “theory of mind,” what does the child fail to understand?
    Some people know things that other people don’t know.
  123. According to Thorndike, reinforcement is an event that
    increases the probability of the preceding response.
  124. Many cancer patients lose their appetite by associating many foods with radiation-induced nausea. What is one good way to preserve their appetite?
    Choose a scapegoat food and always eat it before radiation.
  125. A "cohort effect" occurs when an investigator compares groups of people who
    were born in different eras.
  126. According to the social-learning approach, a large percentage of what people do is based on
    imitation.
  127. Birth cohorts differ from one another because the older generation is in many ways similar to
    immigrants to a new culture.
  128. According to Terror Management Theory, even a casual reference to death tends to
    increase people's defenses of their beliefs.
  129. Someone who learns to avoid a poisonous mushroom also avoids a similar looking, but harmless mushroom. This behavior is an example of
    generalization.
  130. At which stage of operant conditioning does an experimenter make use of shaping?
    at the start of training
  131. A researcher demonstrates that most children display a temperament at age 7 that is similar to their temperament at age 2. The study that led to this must have followed which kind of design?
    longitudinal study
  132. How does an investigator produce extinction in classical conditioning?
    Present the CS without the UCS.
  133. An experimenter who wants to train a rat to pull a string to raise a flag begins by training it to stand up. This procedure is known as
    shaping.
  134. During the Korean War, captured U.S. soldiers were persuaded to cooperate with their captors one small step at a time, with reinforcements for each step. This procedure resembles which principle of operant conditioning?
    shaping
  135. A tone is followed by food until the dog consistently salivates to the tone. Then, the tone plus a light (at the same time) occur before food for additional trials. In later test trials, the dog shows strong conditioned response to
    the tone
  136. After many repetitions of the sound “ba,” an infant habituates (that is, decreases responses). When the experimenter substitutes the sound “pa,” the infant increases responses. What conclusion do psychologists draw?
    The infant hears a difference between the two sounds.
  137. An infant who hears a novel sound increases its sucking rate. After several presentations of the same sound, the sucking rate declines. This decrease in responding is called
    habituation.
  138. How does alcohol lead to the problems associated with fetal alcohol syndrome?
    It decreases the excitation of neurons, so that they self-destruct.
  139. First Maxi saw chocolate in the blue cupboard. While he was absent, his mother moved it to the green cupboard. What does it mean if a child says Maxi will return and look in the blue cupboard?
    It means the child has “theory of mind.”
  140. On the first floor of your dormitory are two vending machines. The one on the left always works; the one on the right is usually broken. You therefore put your money only in the machine on the left. This illustrates which aspect of operant conditioning?
    discrimination
  141. Lev Vygotsky would most strongly disagree with which of these statements?
    We have to wait for children to discover concepts on their own.
  142. Mary Ainsworth devised a test of attachment in which the mother and an infant enter a room with toys, a stranger enters, the mother and stranger leave, the stranger returns, and finally the mother returns. What is this procedure called?
    Strange Situation
  143. According to Piaget, a child who has mastered the principle of conservation but who has limitations on abstract thought is in which stage of cognitive development?
    concrete operations
  144. An educational system in which students are taught one small step at a time, with frequent tests and positive reinforcements for correct answers, is probably an application of the principles of
    operant conditioning.
  145. In order to reduce risky behavior of children on a playground, a safety officer offered small rewards to the entire class if everyone played more safely. This procedure is an example of
    applied behavior analysis.
  146. An investigator compares the drawings of children ranging in age from 5 to 10 (measured the same time) and reports trends as a function of age. What kind of study is this?
    cross-sectional
  147. A 2 1/2-year old child sees a toy hidden in a tiny room, and then looks for a larger version of the toy in a full-sized room. Under what circumstances can the child find the toy quickly?
    Only if the child has been told that the experimenter expanded the room.
  148. A professor gives unannounced quizzes at unpredictable times. Therefore students must study equally every night. Which type of schedule of reinforcement is this?
    variable interval
  149. If a child clings tightly to the mother and cries furiously when she leaves, which attachment style does the child show?
    Avoidant
  150. Classical conditioning applies primarily to _______ responses; operant conditioning applies primarily to ______ responses.
    visceral...skeletal

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