for when you can't understand your prof whatsoever
What did Donders (1868) do?
Came up with Mental chronometry and the RT experiment
What is Mental Chronometry?
Measure of the length of a cognitive process
What is the RT experiment?
Experiment by Donders (1868) which measures interval between stimulus presentation and the response/behavior to it
Simple - Button + light
Choice - 2 buttons for 2 lights
What did Helmholtz (1860) do?
Came up with Unconscious Inference
Explain Unconsious Inference
Idea by Helmholtz (1860) in which some perceptions are results of unconscious assumptions made about the environment
What did Ebbinghaus (1885) do?
Read nonsense syllables until he could flawlessly repeat them
Explain "Savings" and the formula for it
Concept of Ebbinghaus (1885) in which the amount of information remembered was the result of subtracting re-learned repetitions from initial repetitions, and dividing that by the initial repetitions. (spawned retention curve)
What was special about Wundt (1897)?
Made the first psychology lab
Who came up with Structuralism and what was it?
Wundt's (1879) theory of experience being determined by combining elements of experience called sensations
Who came up with Analytic Introspection and what was it?
Wundt's (1897) method of training people to describe experiences and thought processes in response to a stimuli
Who was Watson (1920)?
Behaviourist, famous for Little Albert rat experiment (classical conditioning of fear)
Define Classical Conditioning
Pairing a neutral event with an event that naturally produces some outcome, so the neutral event would produce the same outcome.
What was Skinner (1950) famous for?
Famous for Skinner Box and Operant Conditioning
Define Operant Conditioning
Shaping behavior with rewards and punishments
Who did Chomsky (1959) disagree with and why?
Argued with Skinner (1950) in that children don't learn only through imitation + reinforcement, rather there was an inborn biological program
What was Misbehavior of Organisms (1961)?
Book which outlined animals' built-in instincts prevailing over conditioning
What did Tolman (1938) do?
Trained rats to find food in a 4 armed maze. Disproved behaviorism, proved dynamic cognitive mapping.
What was the Cognitive Revolution?
Shift from stimulus-response relationships to explaining behavior in terms of mind
Define the Information-processing approach
Form of studying the mind by relating it to a computer
Explain Cherry (1953)'s experiment
Dichotic listening experiment (Different message in each ear, one repeated)
What did Broadbent (1958) make?
Flow diagram depicting what happens if one stimuli is focused on
Define the Behavior Approach
Measure of relationship between stimuli and behavior
Define the Physiological Approach
Measure of relationship between physiology and behavior
What did Muller and Pilzecker (1900) do?
2 groups, 2 lists, one learning the second list 6 minutes after the first vs. immediately
What experiment did Gais (2007) perform?
2 groups, 1 list, one sleeping immediately after learning the list vs. hours after
What are Neurotransmitters?
Chemicals affecting the electrical signal of the receiving neuron (excitatory + inhibitory)
What is the Frontal Lobe responsible for?
Language, thought, memory, motor
What is the Parietal Lobe responsible for?
Touch, all physical sensations really
What is the Temporal Lobe responsible for?
Auditory, language, perception
What is the Occipital Lobe responsible for?
What is the Hippocampus responsible for?
What is the Amygdala responsible for?
Emotions + emotional memories
What is the Thalamus responsible for
Processes auditory, sensory, and visual senses
What is the Limbic System composed of?
Contains the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus
What is the Cerebral Cortex composed of?
Contains frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes
Where and what is the Fusiform Face Area
In temporal lobe and recognizes faces
Where and what is the Parahippocampal Place Area
In temporal lobe and responds to environments
Where and what is the Extrastriate Body Area
In occipital/temporal lobe and responds to bodies and body parts
Where and what is the Broca's Area
In frontal lobe and is responsible for language production
Where and what is the Wernicke's Area
In temporal lobe and is responsible for language comprehension
What does a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan do?
Measures blood flow in the brain with help from a radioactive tracer
What is the Subtraction Technique?
When you take two brain images, and compare them to figure out what areas the stimuli stimulated
What is a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan?
Measures blood flow in the brain without the need for a radioactive tracer
What is the Event-Related Potential (ERP) method?
Hooking up sensors to the scalp to make inferences about inner brain workings
(+ is tons of measurements)
(- is no precise locations)
What are Feature Detectors?
Neurons that respond the best to specific stimuli
What did Hubel & Wiesel (1965) find?
Simple cells and complex cells (neurons)
Define a Simple Cell
Neurons that respond best to bars of light of a particular orientation
Define a Complex Cell
Neurons that respond best to a bar of light with specific orientation and length
Define Specificity Coding
Represent a specific stimuli by firing a specialized neuron that only responds to a specific stimulus
Define Distributed Coding
Representation by a pattern of firings across a number of neurons